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We measured production of reactive oxygen species by intact mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle, heart, and liver under various experimental conditions. By using different substrates and inhibitors, we determined the sites of production (which complexes in the electron transport chain produced superoxide). By measuring hydrogen peroxide production in the(More)
Activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle increases glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing gene expression in these pathways. However, the transcriptional components that are directly targeted by AMPK are still elusive. The peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha(More)
PGC-1alpha is a coactivator of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors that regulates several metabolic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and muscle fiber-type switching. We show here that, while hepatocytes lacking PGC-1alpha are defective in the program of hormone-stimulated gluconeogenesis,(More)
PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a potent stimulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Since the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the main producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in most cells, we examined the effect of PGC-1alpha on the metabolism of ROS. PGC-1alpha is coinduced with several key ROS-detoxifying enzymes(More)
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) diverts energy from ATP synthesis to thermogenesis in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue by catalysing a regulated leak of protons across the inner membrane. The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated. UCP2 and UCP3 are present at much lower abundance than UCP1, and the uncoupling with(More)
Alterations in cellular metabolism are among the most consistent hallmarks of cancer. Herein we have investigated the relationship between increased aerobic lactate production and mitochondrial physiology in tumor cells. To diminish the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) levels were knocked down by(More)
Futile cycling of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane accounts for 20 % or more of the total standard metabolic rate of a rat. Approximately 15 % of this total is due to proton leakage inside the skeletal muscle alone. This study examined whether the rate of proton leak is down-regulated as a part of a coordinated response to energy conservation(More)
Drosophila melanogaster is a key model organism for genetic investigation of the role of free radicals in aging, but biochemical understanding is lacking. Superoxide production by Drosophila mitochondria was measured fluorometrically as hydrogen peroxide, using its dependence on substrates, inhibitors, and added superoxide dismutase to determine sites of(More)
In anoxia, mitochondria change from being ATP producers to potentially powerful ATP consumers. This change occurs, because the mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATPase begins to hydrolyze ATP to avoid the collapse of the proton motive force. Species that can survive prolonged periods of O(2) lack must limit such ATP use; otherwise, this process would dominate(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and is one of the most conserved peptides in evolution, suggesting an important role in the regulation of basic physiological functions, including learning and memory. In addition, experimental studies have suggested that NPY, together with its receptors, may have a(More)