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Cardiac fibrosis, associated with a decreased extent of microvasculature and with disruption of normal myocardial structures, results from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which is mediated by the recruitment of fibroblasts. The source of these fibroblasts is unclear and specific anti-fibrotic therapies are not currently available. Here we show(More)
One of the least-understood areas in biology is the determination of the size of animals and their organs. In Drosophila, components of the insulin receptor phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway determine body, organ, and cell size. Several biochemical studies have suggested that Akt/protein kinase B is one of the important downstream targets of PI3K. To(More)
AIMS The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-treatment to induce cardioprotection following ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) has been well documented; however, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. LPS is a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand. Recent evidence indicates that there is cross-talk between the TLR and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt(More)
Ribosomal S6 kinases (S6Ks) have been depicted as critical effectors downstream of growth factor pathways, which play an important role in the regulation of protein synthesis by phosphorylating the ribosomal protein, S6. The goal of this study was to determine whether S6Ks regulate heart size, are critical for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy in(More)
Background—Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We recently reported that administration of rapamycin before exposure to ascending aortic constriction significantly attenuated the load-induced increase in heart weight by Ϸ70%. Methods and Results—To examine whether rapamycin can regress established cardiac(More)
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