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OBJECTIVE The rationale for blocking interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lies chiefly in the proinflammatory effect of this cytokine. Few studies have evaluated the consequences of anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody treatment on Treg cells. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of action of anti-IL-6R antibody treatment by(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal infection during pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for the occurrence of a broad spectrum of psychiatric and neurologic disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, and cerebral palsy. Prenatal exposure of rats to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to impaired learning and psychotic-like behavior in mature offspring, together with an(More)
INTRODUCTION Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a crucial role in preventing autoimmune diseases and are an ideal target for the development of therapies designed to suppress inflammation in an antigen-specific manner. Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are defined by their capacity to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), which contributes to their(More)
We have previously demonstrated, in the collagen-induced arthritis model (CIA), that repetitive injections of immature bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (iDCs) induce the expansion of a population of CD4CD49b-expressing cells, and that their adoptive transfer results in protection against CIA in a prophylactic setting. However, the in vivo mechanism(More)
The mechanotransduction of vestibular sensory cells depends on the high endolymphatic potassium concentration ([K+]) maintained by a fine balance between K+ secretion and absorption by epithelial cells. Despite the crucial role of endolymph as an electrochemical motor for mechanotransduction, little is known about the processes that govern endolymph(More)
For many years, a great deal of interest has been focusing on the optimization of peptide presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) using peptide-encapsulated particles, in order to enhance the immune response. Nowadays, DCs are also known to be involved in peripheral tolerance, inducing anergy or regulatory T lymphocytes. To preserve the plasticity of DCs, we(More)