Julie Penzotti

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TCR engagement of peptide-MHC class II ligands involves specific contacts between the TCR and residues on both the MHC and peptide molecules. We have used molecular modeling and assays of peptide binding and T cell function to characterize these interactions for a CD4+ Th1 cell clone, ESL4.34, which recognizes a peptide epitope of the herpes simplex type 2(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) functions as a drug efflux pump, mediating multidrug resistance and limiting the efficacy of many drugs. Clearly, identification of potential P-gp substrate liability early in the drug discovery process would be advantageous. We describe a multiple-pharmacophore model that can discriminate between substrates and nonsubstrates of P-gp(More)
Computational methods are increasingly used to streamline and enhance the lead discovery and optimization process. However, accurate prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) is often difficult, due to the complexity of underlying physiological mechanisms. Modeling approaches have been hampered(More)
This review discusses the current challenges facing researchers developing computational models to predict absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) for early drug discovery. The strengths and weaknesses of different modeling approaches are reviewed and a survey of recent strategies to model several key ADMET parameters, including(More)
The high affinity energetics in the streptavidin-biotin system provide an excellent model system for studying how proteins balance enthalpic and entropic components to generate an impressive overall free energy for ligand binding. We review here concerted site-directed mutagenesis, biophysical, and computational studies of aromatic and hydrogen bonding(More)
In bee venom phospholipase A2, histidine-34 probably functions as a Brønsted base to deprotonate the attacking water. Aspartate-64 and tyrosine-87 form a hydrogen bonding network with histidine-34. We have prepared mutants at these positions and studied their kinetic properties. The mutant in which histidine-34 is changed to glutamine is catalytically(More)
The streptavidin-biotin system has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the molecular details of ligand dissociation pathways. An underlying mechanistic question is whether ligand dissociation proceeds with a relatively ordered process of bond breaking and ligand escape. Here we report a joint computational and crystallographic study of the earliest(More)
OBJECTIVE To use molecular modeling tools to analyze the potential structural basis for the genetic association of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) "shared epitope," a set of conserved amino acid residues in the third hypervariable region of the DRbeta chain. METHODS Homology model building techniques were used to(More)
HLA molecules associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) contain a discrete structural element known as the shared epitope, a set of conserved amino acid residues located on the alpha helical portion of the class II beta chain. Each of the different HLA molecules associated with RA contain the same shared epitope sequence, although they may vary markedly in(More)
AIMS Hand-held ultrasound devices will probably be used for bedside cardiac diagnoses by internists without formal training in echocardiography. We compared the accuracy of hand-held ultrasound devices studies performed by expert echocardiographers vs internal medicine residents with brief training in echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS Three internal(More)