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Isolated for the first time in 1982 from human gastric biopsy, Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. A pathogenicity island acquired by horizontal transfer, coding for a type IV secretion system, is a major determinant of virulence. The infection is now treated with antibiotics, and vaccines are in preparation.(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhea kills 2 million children worldwide each year, yet an etiological agent is not found in approximately 30-50% of cases. Picornaviral genera such as enterovirus, kobuvirus, cosavirus, parechovirus, hepatovirus, teschovirus, and cardiovirus have all been found in human and animal diarrhea. Modern technologies, especially deep sequencing,(More)
Polyomaviruses are small circular DNA viruses associated with chronic infections and tumors in both human and animal hosts. Using an unbiased deep sequencing approach, we identified a novel, highly divergent polyomavirus, provisionally named MX polyomavirus (MXPyV), in stool samples from children. The ∼5.0 kB viral genome exhibits little overall homology(More)
Helicobacter species have been found in human bile and biliary tract (BT) tissue and are suspected to cause BT diseases, including gallbladder and extrahepatic cancers, collectively referred to in this work as BT cancers. We conducted a literature review of the epidemiological evidence linking the presence of Helicobacter species in bile or BT biopsies to(More)
To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a cohort of tuberculosis patients and their contacts (N = 129) in Pakistan. Most (79%) persons showed deficiency. Low vitamin D levels were associated with a 5-fold increased risk for progression to tuberculosis.
BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori, a lifelong and typically asymptomatic infection of the stomach, profoundly alters gastric immune responses, and may benefit the host in protection against other pathogens. We explored the hypothesis that H. pylori contributes to the control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
The mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection is poorly characterized. In northern California, 2,752 household members were tested for H. pylori infection in serum or stool at a baseline visit and 3 months later. Among 1,752 person considered uninfected at baseline, 30 new infections (7 definite, 7 probable, and 16 possible) occurred, for an(More)
Cardioviruses comprise a genus of picornaviruses that cause severe illnesses in rodents, but little is known about the prevalence, diversity, or spectrum of disease of such agents among humans. A single cardiovirus isolate, Saffold virus, was cultured in 1981 in stool from an infant with fever. Here, we describe the identification of a group of human(More)
BACKGROUND Triclosan-a ubiquitous chemical in toothpastes, soaps, and household cleaning supplies-has the potential to alter both gut microbiota and endocrine function and thereby affect body weight. METHODS We investigated the relationship between triclosan and body mass index (BMI) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from(More)