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Coral reefs are the most biologically diverse of shallow water marine ecosystems but are being degraded worldwide by human activities and climate warming. Analyses of the geographic ranges of 3235 species of reef fish, corals, snails, and lobsters revealed that between 7.2% and 53.6% of each taxon have highly restricted ranges, rendering them vulnerable to(More)
Marine reserves have been widely promoted as conservation and fishery management tools. There are robust demonstrations of conservation benefits, but fishery benefits remain controversial. We show that marine reserves in Florida (United States) and St. Lucia have enhanced adjacent fisheries. Within 5 years of creation, a network of five small reserves in(More)
Readers are welcome to copy this booklet in full or part, provided that copies are not resold and that the work is properly credited to the authors. Requests for permission to reprint sections should be made to Acknowledgements: We owe a great debt of gratitude to many people. The initial kernel for this booklet was a paper, " Marine reserves: a brief guide(More)
Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem(More)
The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Endangered Species employs a robust, standardized approach to assess extinction threat focussed on taxa approaching an end-point in population decline. Used alone, we argue this enforces a reactive approach to conservation. Species not assessed as threatened but which occur predominantly in(More)
Despite recent efforts to increase the global coverage of marine protected areas (MPAs), studies investigating the effectiveness of marine protected areas within temperate waters remain scarce. Furthermore, out of the few studies published on MPAs in temperate waters, the majority focus on specific ecological or fishery components rather than investigating(More)
Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod(More)
Keywords: Marine protected areas MPAs Management effectiveness a b s t r a c t Marine reserves are places where wildlife and habitats are protected from extractive and depositional uses of the sea. Although considered to be the pinnacle in marine conservation, many permit non-consumptive activities with little or no regulation. This paper examines the(More)
Shark tourism is a popular but controversial activity. We obtained insights into this industry via a global e-mailed questionnaire completed by 45 diving/snorkelling operators who advertised shark experiences (shark operators) and 49 who did not (non-shark operators). 42% of shark operators used an attractant to lure sharks and 93% stated they had a formal(More)
1. Extensive sampling in 2006 quantified variations in shallow-water holothurian abundance across the Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory, and revealed negative effects of illegal poaching. Median abundance in Diego Garcia, where exploitation is absent, was significantly higher than in three exploited atolls. 2. Repeat surveys undertaken(More)