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Using a replication-deficient retroviral vector based on the avian leukosis virus (ALV), we inserted into the chicken genome a transgene encoding a secreted protein, beta-lactamase, under the control of the ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. Biologically active beta-lactamase was secreted into the serum and egg white of four generations of(More)
To assess the frequency and natural history of swallowing problems following an acute stroke, 121 consecutive patients admitted within 24 hours of the onset of their stroke were studied prospectively. The ability to swallow was assessed repeatedly by a physician, a speech and language therapist, and by videofluoroscopy. Clinically 51% (61/121) of patients(More)
BACKGROUND Polymorphisms within the P1 isoenzyme of GST (GSTP1) are associated with alterations in enzyme activity and may change sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. We investigated the relationship between exon 5 and exon 6 GSTP1 gene polymorphisms and treatment response, hematological, and nonhematological toxicity and overall survival for(More)
The aims of this study were to (a) determine how the quantification of blood vessels in histological sections (vascularity) is affected by the methodology used and (b) assess the value of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis by comparing tumour and normal breast tissue. Archival specimens of breast, lung and oral carcinoma, oral dysplasia and normal(More)
BACKGROUND AIMS Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used as a serum supplement for culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, human cells grown in FBS, especially for extended periods, risk potential exposure to bovine immunogenic proteins and infectious agents. To address this issue, we investigated the ability of a novel human platelet(More)
PURPOSE Tamoxifen reduces risk of recurrence after breast conservation surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but no data exists on the effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors for DCIS. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in DCIS, representing another potential therapeutic target. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of aromatase(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the snoring sounds induced during sleep nasendoscopy, and to compare them with those of natural sleep using sound frequency spectra. The snoring of 16 subjects was digitally recorded during natural and induced sleep, noting the site of vibration during sleep nasendoscopy. Patients with palatal snoring during sleep(More)
BACKGROUND The Joint Working Group of the Royal Colleges of Physicians, Psychiatrists and General Practitioners (1996) recommended graded exercise and antidepressants for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. We assessed efficacy and acceptability of these treatments. METHOD Six-month prospective randomised placebo and therapist contact time controlled(More)
BACKGROUND Wheezing and asthma often begins in early childhood, but it is difficult to predict whether or not a wheezy infant will develop asthma. Some researchers suggest that treatment with inhaled corticosteroids at the first signs of wheezing in childhood could prevent the development of asthma later in life. However, other investigators have reported(More)
The factors controlling epithelial proliferation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are unclear. Antiestrogens are effective in the prevention of the majority of estrogen receptor-positive, but not estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers, which suggests that other factor(s) are promoting proliferation in ER-negative DCIS. Mutated or overexpressed(More)