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The FOXP3 gene encodes a transcription factor thought to be important for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). These cells are involved in the regulation of T cell activation and therefore are essential for normal immune homeostasis. Signals from microenvironment have a profound influence on the maintenance or progression of(More)
Current understanding of the role of several cancer risk factors is more comprehensive, as reported for a number of sites, including the brain, colon, breasts, and ovaries. Despite such advances, the incidence of breast cancer continues to increase worldwide. Signals from the microenviroment have a profound influence on the maintenance or progression(More)
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could(More)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy. Genetic polymorphisms in the 3′UTR region of the CXCL12 (rs1801157) and TP53 codon 72 (rs1042522) genes may contribute to susceptibility to childhood ALL because they affect some important processes, such as metastasis regulation and tumor suppression. Thus the objective of the(More)
Solid tumors are embedded in a stromal microenvironment consisting of immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as nonimmune cells, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Chemokines are a type of small secreted chemotactic cytokine and together with their receptors play key roles in the immune defense. Critically, they regulate cancer(More)
The role of chemokines and the growth factors has been extensively analyzed both in cancer risk and tumor progression. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) genes are implicated in several diseases, including breast cancer. Genomic DNA was obtained from 21 samples of peripheral blood or from normal(More)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a relevant subgroup of neoplasia which presents negative phenotype of estrogen and progesterone receptors and has no overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). FOXP3 (forkhead transcription factor 3) is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs), whose expression may be increased in tumor cells. This(More)
OBJECTIVES To provide a review of published literature regarding genetic polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene, named as 5-HTTLPR, and its potential role as a susceptibility marker for ethanol abuse in childhood and adolescence. METHODS A literature review of several databases was conducted with the following keywords: 5-HTTLPR, children or(More)
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