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Elongation of mammary ducts in the immature mouse takes place as a result of rapid growth in end buds. These structures proliferate at the apex of elongating ducts and are responsible for penetration of the surrounding adipose stroma; by turning and branching, end buds give rise to the characteristic open pattern of the mammary ductal tree. We have used a(More)
When present at low concentrations, the fluorescent lipophilic dye, DiOC6, stains mitochondria in living yeast cells [Pringle et al.: Methods in Cell Biol. 31:357-435, 1989; Weisman et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87:1076-1080, 1990]. However, we found that the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum were specifically stained if the dye(More)
Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) activate neutrophils to undergo a series of coordinated interactions, leading to transendothelial migration, eventually culminating in vascular destruction. The molecular events underlying neutrophil recruitment in ANCA-associated vasculitis need to be defined to enable effective therapeutic manipulation. A(More)
The primary small-vessel systemic vasculitides are disorders that target small blood vessels, inducing vessel wall inflammation, and are associated with the development of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Multiple organs are attacked, including the lungs and kidneys. Increasing knowledge of pathogenesis suggests that the antibodies activate(More)
In antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis (ASV), autoantibody-induced neutrophil activation is believed to cause organ damage. In vitro, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) primes neutrophils for ANCA stimulation and TNFalpha blockade has been successfully used to treat ASV. Nonetheless, irreversible organ damage can(More)
Cell-surface antigens that are induced to appear on T cells activated by the lectin phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA) can be classified both on the basis of the kinetics of their appearance and on their growth-association properties. Seven distinct T cell activation antigens, defined by monoclonal antibodies, were classified as early, intermediate, or late(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of verocytotoxin-1 (VT1), VT1 B chain alone, ricin and a hybrid toxin (RASTA2) consisting of ricin A chain linked to VT1 B chain to inhibit protein synthesis and to induce apoptosis. The lethal effects of the toxins were compared using vero cells (originating from green African monkey kidney tissue). As(More)
Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and renal limited vasculitis are associated with circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies and are an important cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. This review gives an account of recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis underlying these conditions and how these may lead(More)
The events leading to immunologic enhancement in LEW rats immunized actively with Brown Norway (BN) rat spleen cells and passively with LEW anti-BN hyperimmune serum 11 and 10 days before receiving (LEW X BN)F1 cardiac allografts, respectively, have been studied. Cellular suppressor mechanisms developing during the induction phase of this phenomenon have(More)