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BACKGROUND Most patients with familial primary pulmonary hypertension have defects in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2), a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of receptors. Because patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may have lung disease that is indistinguishable from primary(More)
BACKGROUND Cross sectional studies have shown that 1-2% of patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST). However, no population based longitudinal studies have assessed lifetime risk. METHODS NF1 patients with MPNST were ascertained from two sources for our north west England population of 4.1 million(More)
Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the nails of the thumb and great toe. Here we report damaging de novo mutations in KCNH1 (encoding a protein called ether à go-go, EAG1 or KV10.1), a voltage-gated potassium channel that is predominantly(More)
A range of phenotypes including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly and Pallister-Hall syndromes (GCPS, PHS) are caused by pathogenic mutation of the GLI3 gene. To characterize the clinical variability of GLI3 mutations, we present a subset of a cohort of 174 probands referred for GLI3 analysis. Eighty-one probands with typical GCPS or PHS were previously reported,(More)
BACKGROUND Sudden cardiac death among children and young adults is a devastating event. We performed a prospective, population-based, clinical and genetic study of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults. METHODS We prospectively collected clinical, demographic, and autopsy information on all cases of sudden cardiac death among children and(More)
An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons(More)
Synpolydactyly (SPD) is a dominantly inherited congenital limb malformation. Typical cases have 3/4 finger and 4/5 toe syndactyly, with a duplicated digit in the syndactylous web, but incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are common. The condition has recently been shown to be caused by expansions of an imperfect trinucleotide repeat sequence(More)
BACKGROUND The 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome (9qSTDS) is clinically characterised by moderate to severe mental retardation, childhood hypotonia and facial dysmorphisms. In addition, congenital heart defects, urogenital defects, epilepsy and behavioural problems are frequently observed. The syndrome can be either caused by a submicroscopic 9q34.3(More)
A clinical study of patients on the North West Regional Genetic Register with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) identified 523 affected cases from 304 families. In those for whom relevant information was available, 86.7% (383 of 442) had more than six café au lait patches, 83.8% (310 of 370) had axillary freckling, 42.3% (151 of 357) had inguinal freckling,(More)
NF-κB is a master regulator of inflammation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of immune disorders and cancer. Its regulation involves a variety of steps, including the controlled degradation of inhibitory IκB proteins. In addition, the inactivation of DNA-bound NF-κB is essential for its regulation. This step requires a factor known as copper(More)