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In the first experiment, rats were trained on a working memory task for a spatial response (right-left turn) information using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Following lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPF), which includes anterior cingulate and medial precentral cortex, there was a profound working memory deficit even at the shortest delay.(More)
Probe tests provide an important additional converging operation to identify the characteristics of cognitive processes being assessed by other behavioral measures. We introduce a new procedure using a variable-interval (VI) probe test to assess spatial memory in the water maze. Three groups of rats were trained in spatial discrimination with traditional(More)
The effects of phencyclidine (PCP), an NMDA antagonist, was assessed on a complex task that has been shown to be dependent on hippocampal function. This task required memory for the temporal order of spatial locations. Rats were given IP injections of saline or PCP (3-4 mg/kg) on a double alternation schedule. With PCP injections rats were severely impaired(More)
Oral vaccines that elicit a mucosal immune response may be effective against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) because its transmission occurs mainly at the mucosa. The aim of this study was to construct recombinant Lactobacillus for oral delivery of oral vaccines against HIV-1 and to evaluate their immunogenicity. A recombinant Lactobacillus(More)
To test for the contribution of the parietal cortex and hippocampus to memory for allocentric spatial cues, the authors trained rats on a go/no-go task that required the rat to remember the distance between two visual cues. Total hippocampal lesions impaired working-memory representation for allocentric distance, whereas parietal cortex lesions resulted in(More)
To assess the working memory system for egocentric distance and place information, delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) go/no-go tasks were run for each rat. To assess the reference memory system, and to serve as a control for nonmemory deficits, successive discrimination go/no-go tasks were then conducted using the same rats. Rats with hippocampal, but not(More)
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the(More)
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats follows a disease course similar to HIV-1, including a short acute phase characterized by high viremia, and a prolonged asymptomatic phase characterized by low viremia and generalized immune dysfunction. CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells have been implicated as a possible(More)
Vaginal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. Currently, multiple efforts to prevent HIV transmission are based on pre-exposure prophylaxis with various antiretroviral drugs. Here, we describe two novel nanoformulations of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine for pericoital and coitus-independent HIV prevention.(More)
The recently completed HIV prevention trials network study 052 is a landmark collaboration demonstrating that HIV transmission in discordant couples can be dramatically reduced by treating the infected individual with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the cellular and virological events that occur in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during ART that(More)