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Octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for 57 terpenoids were measured using a RP-HPLC method. Sample detection was achieved with standard UV and refractive index detectors and required no special column treatment. Measured log Kow values for the terpenoids ranged from 1.81 to 4.48 with a standard error of between 0.03 and 0.08 over the entire range.(More)
The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Its mode of action against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli AG100, the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325, and the yeast Candida albicans has been investigated using a range of methods. We report that exposing these(More)
AIMS This study compared the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil with that of some of its components, both individually and in two-component combinations. METHODS AND RESULTS Minimum inhibitory concentration and time-kill assays revealed that terpinen-4-ol, the principal active component of tea tree oil, was more active on its(More)
A new microdilution method has been developed for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oil-based compounds. The redox dye resazurin was used to determine the MIC of a sample of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) for a range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Use of 0.15% (w/v) agar as a stabilizer overcame the(More)
Twenty-eight extracts from 17 species of Australian native plants traditionally used as general anti-inflammatory medicines by Australian Aboriginal people were examined for inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO). The extracts from nine species were found to have more than 25% inhibition at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in the assay mixture.(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is less susceptible to the antimicrobial properties of tea tree oil than many bacteria and its tolerance is considered to be due to its outer membrane. Polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), which has no antibacterial action, was used to permeabilize the outer membrane. The addition of PMBN to Ps. aeruginosa NCTC 6749 markedly increased this(More)
AIMS To examine the causes for variations in sensitivity and intrinsic tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to plant volatile compounds. METHODS AND RESULTS Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for a selection of volatile phytochemicals against P. aeruginosa using a microdilution assay. Effects on growth were also assessed in 100-ml broth(More)
A total of 27 methanol extracts obtained from different plant parts of 10 species of rain forest trees belonging to four genera of the Flacourtiaceae and originating from Australia were investigated. In vitro cytotoxicity was measured by an ATP Lite-M assay method against the mouse P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line. The total antioxidant activity has been(More)
Tea tree oil (TTO) stimulates autolysis in exponential and stationary phase cells of Escherichia coli. Electron micrographs of cells grown in the presence of TTO showed the loss of electron dense material, coagulation of cell cytoplasm and formation of extracellular blebs. Stationary phase cells demonstrated less TTO-stimulated autolysis and also had(More)