Julie L. Lockwood

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Human-mediated species invasions are a significant component of current global environmental change. There is every indication that the rate at which locations are accumulating non-native species is accelerating as free trade and globalization advance. Thus, the need to incorporate predictive models in the assessment of invasion risk has become acute.(More)
A predictive understanding of the ecological impacts of nonnative species has been slow to develop, owing largely to an apparent dearth of clearly defined hypotheses and the lack of a broad theoretical framework. The context dependency of impact has fueled the perception that meaningful generalizations are nonexistent. Here, we identified and reviewed 19(More)
Agar media made with 0.4% colloidal chitin plus mineral salts and adjusted to pH 8.0 was superior to four other commonly used media for the isolation and enumeration of actinomycetes from water samples. More actinomycetes developed on chitin agar, and the development of bacteria and fungi was suppressed. Frozen and vacuum-dried chitin from aqueous colloidal(More)
Theory suggests that introduction effort (propagule size or number) should be a key determinant of establishment success for exotic species. Unfortunately, however, propagule pressure is not recorded for most introductions. Studies must therefore either use proxies whose efficacy must be largely assumed, or ignore effort altogether. The results of such(More)
Exotic species invasions create almost ideal conditions for promoting evolutionary diversification: establishment of allopatric populations in new environmental conditions; altered ecological opportunities for native species; and new opportunities for hybridization between previously allopatric taxa. Here, we review recent studies of the evolutionary(More)
The process by which a species becomes a biological invader, at a location where it does not naturally occur, can be divided into a series of sequential stages (transport, introduction, establishment and spread). A species' success at passing through each of these stages depends, in a large part, on the number of individuals available to assist making each(More)
There is growing consensus in the literature on biological invasions that propagule pressure (or a component thereof) is the primary determinant of establishment success in introduced species. However, a recent paper (Moulton et al. Biodiver Conserv 20:607–623, 2011) questions whether this consensus is justified. It argues that the effect of propagule(More)
Human activities have reorganized the earth's biota resulting in spatially disparate locales becoming more or less similar in species composition over time through the processes of biotic homogenization and biotic differentiation, respectively. Despite mounting evidence suggesting that this process may be widespread in both aquatic and terrestrial systems,(More)
Of established nonindigenous plant species in California, Florida, and Tennessee, 5.8%, 9.7%, and 13.4%, respectively, invade natural areas according to designations tabulated by state Exotic Pest Plant Councils. Only Florida accords strictly with the tens rule, though California and Tennessee fall within the range loosely viewed as obeying the rule. The(More)
A central paradigm in invasion biology is that more releases of higher numbers of individuals increase the likelihood that an exotic population successfully establishes and persists. Recently, however, it has been suggested that, in cases where the data are sourced from historical records of purposefully released species, the direction of causality is(More)