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Microglia are the resident macrophage-like population in the CNS. Microglia remain quiescent until injury or infection activates the cells to perform effector inflammatory and APC functions. Our previous studies have shown that microglia infected with a neurotropic strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus secreted innate immune cytokines and(More)
Multiple sclerosis1 (MS) is an immune-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease in humans. The initiating event in MS is unknown, but epidemiological evidence suggests that virus infections may be important and one possible mechanism for induction of infection-induced autoimmune disease is molecular mimicry. To test the ability of a virus encoding a self(More)
The immunologic privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) makes it crucial that CNS resident cells be capable of responding rapidly to infection. Astrocytes have been reported to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), hallmark pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, and respond to their ligation with cytokine production. Astrocytes have(More)
Microglia are resident central nervous system (CNS) macrophages. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of SJL/J mice causes persistent infection of CNS microglia, leading to the development of a chronic-progressive CD4(+) T-cell-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease. We asked if TMEV infection of microglia activates their innate(More)
Virus infections have been implicated in the initiation of multiple human autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on reviewing the role of viruses in initiation, progression, and perpetuation of autoimmune diseases. Various mechanisms by which virus infections can induce autoimmune responses including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, direct bystander(More)
The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a human demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is currently unknown. It is widely thought that MS is an autoimmune disease which is supported by animal studies showing that myelin-specific CD4+ T cells can induce similar clinical disease in mice as observed in MS. However, the mechanism(s) of(More)
Molecular mimicry is the main postulated mechanism by which infectious agents induce autoimmune disease. A number of animal models have been utilized to establish a link between molecular mimicry and autoimmunity. However, a model of infectious disease whereby a natural pathogen expressing a known mimic epitope can induce autoimmunity to a known(More)
IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) regulates early type I IFNs and other genes involved in innate immunity. We have previously shown that cells undergoing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response called the unfolded protein response produce synergistically augmented IFN-β when stimulated with pattern recognition receptor agonists such as LPS. Concomitant(More)
Cells of myeloid origin such as microglia have the potential to contribute significantly to the development of inflammatory responses in the CNS. The ability of the neuropeptide substance P to augment proinflammatory responses by other myeloid cell types such as macrophages and dendritic cells is well recognized. In the present study, we demonstrate the(More)