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On human chromosome 1q21, a 2-Mb region called the epidermal differentiation complex comprises many genes encoding structural and regulatory proteins that are of crucial importance for keratinocyte differentiation and stratum corneum properties. Apart from those for involucrin and loricrin, most of the genes are organized in four families: the genes(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine attentional bias towards angry and happy faces in 8-12 year old children with anxiety disorders (n=29) and non-anxious controls (n=24). METHOD Children completed a visual-probe task in which pairs of angry/neutral and happy/neutral faces were displayed for 500ms and were replaced by a visual probe in the spatial location of one of the(More)
Learning-based models of anxiety disorders emphasize the role of aversive conditioning and retarded extinction in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Yet few studies have examined these underlying processes in children, despite that some anxiety disorders typically onset during childhood. The authors examined the acquisition and extinction of(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a disturbed epidermal barrier. In a subset of patients, this is explained by nonsense mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG). OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the respective role of FLG mutations and proinflammatory cytokines and to assess the expression of(More)
Efferent and reciprocal synapses have been demonstrated in the carotid body of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Synapses were also found with purely afferent morphology, but were probably components of reciprocal synapses. The general morphology of the endings suggested the presence of two types of axon, afferent axons making reciprocal and(More)
Filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a member of the S100-fused type protein family, shares numerous features with filaggrin (FLG), a key protein implicated in the epidermal barrier functions. Both display a related structural organization, an identical pattern of expression and localization in human epidermis, and proteolytic processing of a large precursor. Here, we(More)
The study of aversive Pavlovian conditioning in children can contribute to our understanding of how fears are acquired and extinguished during development. However, methodological issues hamper further research because of ethical and procedural concerns regarding the use of traditional aversive unconditional stimuli (USs) and no established method to(More)
A single-nucleotide polymorphism within the gene encoding hornerin (HRNR) has recently been linked with atopic dermatitis (AD) susceptibility. HRNR shares features with filaggrin, a key protein for keratinocyte differentiation, but conflicting reports have been published concerning its expression in the epidermis, and its role is still unknown. To analyze(More)
The present study examined the magnitudes of startle blink reflexes and electrodermal responses in 4-8-year-old high anxious children (N=14) and non-anxious controls (N=11). Responses were elicited by 16 auditory startle trials during a baseline phase prior to an affective modulation phase involving 12 startle trials presented during angry and neutral(More)
Deimination, the conversion of protein-bound arginines into citrullines, is a post-translational modification catalyzed by a peptidylarginine deiminase (Pad). In the epidermis, three Pads are expressed, namely Pad1, 2 and 3, and the major deiminated protein is filaggrin. Deimination of fibrin has been observed in various pathological inflammatory(More)