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BACKGROUND The skin is exposed to numerous environmental assaults that can lead to premature aging. Of these agents, perhaps none is more ubiquitous than the ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight. The primary immediate defense against environmental skin damage is the antioxidant capacity of the skin. However, this defense system can be compromised by(More)
Natural selection theory suggests that mobile animals trade off time, energy and risk costs with food, safety and other pay-offs obtained by movement. We examined how birds make movement decisions by integrating aspects of flight biomechanics, movement ecology and behaviour in a hierarchical framework investigating flight track variation across several(More)
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