Julie E. van Schalkwyk

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OBJECTIVES Nucleo(s/t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors given to HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission may adversely affect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We hypothesized that HAART-exposed/HIV-uninfected infants may show higher blood mtDNA mutation burden than controls born to HIV-uninfected mothers. METHODS Blood was collected from(More)
BACKGROUND The vaginal microbial community plays a vital role in maintaining women's health. Understanding the precise bacterial composition is challenging because of the diverse and difficult-to-culture nature of many bacterial constituents, necessitating culture-independent methodology. During a natural menstrual cycle, physiological changes could have an(More)
The vaginal microbiota is important in women's reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy,(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the evidence and provide recommendations on screening for and management of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. OUTCOMES OUTCOMES evaluated include the efficacy of antibiotic treatment, cure rates for simple and complicated infections, and the implications of these conditions in pregnancy. EVIDENCE(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the stability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load suppression within 1 month before birth in pregnant women receiving antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of a Canadian provincial perinatal HIV database from 1997 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were live birth and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the acceptability to pregnant women and their health care providers of a rapid test for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) in labour. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted with outpatient pregnant women and their health care providers (obstetricians, family physicians and midwives) at BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre.(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of initiating raltegravir (RAL)-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on HIV viral load (VL) in pregnant women who have high or suboptimal VL suppression late in pregnancy. METHODS HIV-infected pregnant women who started RAL-containing cART after 28 weeks' gestation from 2007 to 2013 were identified(More)
Hepatitis B is a chronic viral infection of the liver leading to complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The leading cause of acquisition is vertical transmission from an infected mother to the newborn. Despite newborn immunoprophylaxis, vertical transmission may still occur in 1-14%. The aim of this article is to provide a concise(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the evidence and provide recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis for obstetrical procedures. OUTCOMES Outcomes evaluated include need and effectiveness of antibiotics to prevent infections in obstetrical procedures. EVIDENCE Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Library on the topic of(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the evidence and provide recommendations on the use of antibiotics in preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). OUTCOMES Outcomes evaluated include the effect of antibiotic treatment on maternal infection, chorioamnionitis, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. EVIDENCE Published literature was retrieved through searches of(More)