Julie E Brian

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We examined effects of NG,NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, on cerebral vascular responses using cranial windows in anesthetized rats and rabbits. Under control conditions in rats, topical application of 10 and 100 microM ADMA constricted the basilar artery by 9 +/- 2 and 19(More)
1. Mechanisms that regulate the cerebral circulation have been intensively investigated in recent years. The role of several vasodilator mechanisms has been examined in the cerebral circulation, including nitric oxide (NO), trigeminal peptides and potassium channels, as well as the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin. These mediators appear to play a role in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase. Several types of brain cells in culture can express COX-2 when treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or some cytokines. LPS produces dilatation of cerebral arterioles in vivo through a mechanism that is partially inhibited by indomethacin. In the present study we(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) produces dilatation of cerebral arterioles that is dependent on production of nitric oxide (NO). In these experiments we examined the hypothesis that cerebral vasodilatation in response to NMDA is mediated by the neuronal isoform of NO synthase. METHODS We measured diameters of cerebral arterioles(More)
Bradykinin (BK) is released in the brain during injury and inflammation. Activation of endothelial BK receptors produces acute dilatation of cerebral arterioles that is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can also modulate gene expression, including expression of the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2). We hypothesized that exposure of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hypoxia and hemodilution both reduce arterial oxygen content (CaO(2)) and increase cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the mechanisms by which hemodilution increases CBF are largely unknown. ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are activated by intravascular hypoxia, and contribute to hypoxia-mediated cerebrovasodilatation. Although(More)
Hemodilution reduces blood viscosity and O2 content (CaO2) and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF). Viscosity and CaO2 may contribute to increasing CBF after hemodilution. However, because hematocrit is the major contributor to blood viscosity and CaO2, it has been difficult to assess their relative importance. By varying blood viscosity without changing(More)
We hypothesized that the response of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to changing viscosity would be dependent on "baseline" CBF, with a greater influence of viscosity during high-flow conditions. Plasma viscosity was adjusted to 1.0 or 3.0 cP in rats by exchange transfusion with red blood cells diluted in lactated Ringer solution or with dextran. Cortical CBF was(More)