Julie C. Holder

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GPR41 and GPR43 are related members of a homologous family of orphan G protein-coupled receptors that are tandemly encoded at a single chromosomal locus in both humans and mice. We identified the acetate anion as an agonist of human GPR43 during routine ligand bank screening in yeast. This activity was confirmed after transient transfection of GPR43 into(More)
BACKGROUND Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, the activity of which is inhibited by a variety of extracellular stimuli including insulin, growth factors, cell specification factors and cell adhesion. Consequently, inhibition of GSK-3 activity has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of numerous signalling(More)
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a nuclear receptor highly expressed in adipocytes, induces the differentiation of murine preadipocyte cell lines. Recently, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a novel class of insulin-sensitizing compounds effective in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have been(More)
The recent development of a novel class of insulin-sensitizing drugs, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), represents a significant advance in antidiabetic therapy. One key mechanism by which these drugs exert their effects is by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a member of the nuclear receptor family. Evidence(More)
(+/-)-5-([4-[2-Methyl-2(pyridylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl) 2,4-thiazolidinedione (BRL 49653) is a new potent antidiabetic agent that improves insulin sensitivity in animal models of NIDDM. In C57BL/6 obese (ob/ob) mice, BRL 49653, included in the diet for 8 days, improved glucose tolerance. The half-maximal effective dose was 3 mumol/kg diet, which is(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by endogenous lipid metabolites. Previous studies have demonstrated that PPAR-alpha activation stimulates keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, is anti-inflammatory, and improves barrier homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that PPAR-beta/delta(More)
Lipolysis is an important process determining fuel metabolism, and insulin regulates this process in adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of insulin, an insulin enhancer (rosiglitazone [RSG]), and insulin in combination with RSG on the regulation of lipolysis and lipogenesis in human abdominal subcutaneous fat.(More)
Insulin stimulated protein kinase B alpha (PKB alpha) more than 10-fold and decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity by 50 +/- 10% in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Rapamycin did not prevent the activation of PKB, inhibition of GSK3 or stimulation of glycogen synthase up to 5 min. Thus rapamycin-insensitive pathways mediate the acute effect of(More)
Recently, considerable interest has focused on the ability of activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) to promote cytodifferentiation in adipocytes and some carcinoma cells; however, the role of PPARgamma in normal epithelial cytodifferentiation is unknown. Using uroplakin (UP) gene expression as a specific correlate of(More)
A radioiodinated ligand, [125I]SB-236636 [(S)-(-)3-[4-[2-[N-(2-benzoxazolyl)-N-methylamino]ethoxy]3-[125I]i odo phenyl]2-ethoxy propanoic acid], which is specific for the gamma isoform of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPARgamma), was developed. [125I]SB-236636 binds with high affinity to full-length human recombinant PPARgamma1 and to a(More)