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A rapid and easy-to-use method of predicting the conductance of an ion channel from its three-dimensional structure is presented. The method combines the pore dimensions of the channel as measured in the HOLE program with an Ohmic model of conductance. An empirically based correction factor is then applied. The method yielded good results for six(More)
Src homology 2 (SH2) regions are short (approximately 100 amino acids), non-catalytic domains conserved among a wide variety of proteins involved in cytoplasmic signaling induced by growth factors. It is thought that SH2 domains play an important role in the intracellular response to growth factor stimulation by binding to phosphotyrosine containing(More)
The crystal structure of a non-specific porin from Paracoccus denitrificans at 3.1 A resolution has been solved by molecular replacement using the porin from Rhodopseudomonas blastica as the search model. Paracoccus porin is very similar to other non-specific porins of known structure: a trimer of 16 stranded beta-barrels each with a central pore(More)
An artificial neural network (NN) was trained to predict the topology of bacterial outer membrane (OM) beta-strand proteins. Specifically, the NN predicts the z-coordinate of Calpha atoms in a coordinate frame with the outer membrane in the xy-plane, such that low z-values indicate periplasmic turns, medium z-values indicate transmembrane beta-strands, and(More)
PP63 (parafusin) is a 63 kDa phosphoprotein, which exists in at least two different isoforms. It is very rapidly (80 ms) dephosphorylated during triggered trichocyst exocytosis. This occurs selectively in exocytosis-competent Paramecium tetraurelia strains. At least two protein kinases isolated from Paramecium, casein kinase type II kinase and(More)
Spacecraft ground control data systems are by necessity sophisticated and complex. One of the challenges for system designers is to understand and incorporate the needs of the users so that their systems are easy to use and minimize user errors. User-centered design (UCD) can help achieve these goals. UCD techniques can be applied to the design of ground(More)
FhuA (Mr 78,992, 714 amino acids), siderophore receptor for ferrichrome-iron in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli, was affinity tagged, rapidly purified, and crystallized. To obtain FhuA in quantities sufficient for crystallization, a hexahistidine tag was genetically inserted into the fhuA gene after amino acid 405, which resides in a known(More)
Alamethicin channels have been modelled as approximately parallel bundles of transbilayer helices containing between N = 4 and 8 helices per bundle. Initial models were generated by in vacuo restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and were refined by 60 ps MD simulations with water molecules present within and at the mouths of the central pore. The(More)
Covalent dimers of alamethicin form conducting structures with gating properties that permit measurement of current-voltage (I-V) relationships during the lifetime of a single channel. These I-V curves demonstrate that the alamethicin channel is a rectifier that passes current preferentially, with voltages of the same sign as that of the voltage that(More)
NASA is particularly concerned with reducing mission operations costs through increased automation. Specifically, NASA has been studying the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to further automate mission ground operations. This paper examines the operations procedures within NASA Mission Control Centers in order to uncover the level of automation that(More)