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Previously, it has been shown that, during early Drosophila and C. elegans development, the germ cell precursors undergo a period of transcriptional quiescence. Here, we report that Germ cell-less (GCL), a germ plasm component necessary for the proper formation of "pole cells," the germ cell precursors in Drosophila, is required for the establishment of(More)
The effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (28 days, 455 Torr) on the organization of brain vessels was studied in Balb/c mice. In comparison to age-matched controls kept at sea level, emulsion-perfused capillaries in hypoxic mice showed marked dilation in all brain areas studied. Capillary length per unit volume of tissue (Lv) was increased in the cerebellar(More)
Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) is a brain specific A-kinase anchoring protein that targets the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme (PKA) to microtubules. Phosphorylation of MAP2 by different protein kinases is crucial for neuronal growth. The N-terminus of MAP2 contains the binding site for regulatory subunit II of cAMP-dependent protein(More)
Respiratory activity and NADH CoQ reductase (complex I) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activities were measured in free (non-synaptosomal) mitochondria isolated from cerebral cortex of male Balb/c mice exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (450 Torr; 4300 m) for 21 days and compared to normoxic (sea level) controls. In the hypoxic we found a 47%(More)
Mitochondrial creatine kinases form octameric structures composed of four active and stable dimers. Octamer formation has been postulated to occur via interaction of the charged amino acids in the N-terminal peptide of the mature enzyme. We altered codons for charged amino acids in the N-terminal region of mature sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase(More)
Whereas ATP consumption increases with neural activity and is buffered by phosphocreatine (PCr), it is not known whether PCr synthesis by ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) supports energy metabolism in all neurons. To explore the possibility that uMtCK expression in neurons is modulated by activity and during development, we used(More)
This study examined [3H]MK-801 binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in membranes prepared from cerebral cortex, hippocampus and corpus striatum of 3 week old rats exposed to 10 weeks of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (4300 m; 450 Torr) and compared results with those of normoxic controls. The cortex, hippocampus and striatum of hypoxic(More)
We measured the activities of Na(+)K(+) ATPase and of enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, Krebs cycle, and the respiratory chain in cerebral cortex of mice exposed to chronic hypoxia for three weeks and compared their values with those of sea level controls. There were no differences in Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity or in the activity of glycolytic enzymes. In(More)
Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of a high energy phosphate between ATP and creatine. To study cellular distribution of the kinase, we performed immunocytochemical studies using a peptide antiserum specific for the kinase protein. Our results demonstrated that the sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase gene is(More)
Over the last 15 years, molecular characterization of the creatine kinase (CK) gene family has paralleled the molecular revolution of understanding gene structure, function, and regulation. In this review, we present a summary of advances in molecular analysis of the CK gene family with a few vignettes of historical interest. We describe how the muscle CK(More)
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