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AIM To assess potential function of each two-component signal transduction system in the expression of Streptococcus mutans virulence properties. METHODS AND RESULTS For each two-component system (TCS), the histidine kinase-encoding gene was inactivated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based deletion strategy and the effects of gene disruption on the(More)
Streptococcal competence-stimulating peptides (CSPs) were once thought to passively communicate population density in a process known classically as quorum sensing. However, recent evidence has shown that these peptides may also be inducible 'alarmones,' capable of conveying sophisticated messages in a population including the induction of altruistic(More)
The induction of genetic competence is a strategy used by bacteria to increase their genetic repertoire under stressful environmental conditions. Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae has been shown to co-ordinate the uptake of transforming DNA with fratricide via increased expression of the peptide pheromone responsible for competence induction. Here, we(More)
In Streptococcus pneumoniae, competence and bacteriocin genes are controlled by two two-component systems, ComED and BlpRH, respectively. In Streptococcus mutans, both functions are controlled by the ComED system. Recent studies in S. mutans revealed a potential ComE binding site characterized by two 11 bp direct repeats shared by each of the bacteriocin(More)
AIMS To identify the genes regulated by RR11, the regulator of the Streptococcus mutans HK/RR11 two-component system. METHODS AND RESULTS The S. mutans RR11-encoding gene was inactivated, and the effects of gene disruption on the cell's ability to form biofilms under stresses and acquire extracellular DNA were tested. Biofilm was reduced in cells lacking(More)
The six alpha chains of type IV collagen are organized into three networks: alpha1/alpha2, alpha3/alpha4/alpha5, and alpha1/alpha2/alpha5/alpha6. A shift from the alpha1/alpha2 to the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network occurs in the developing glomerular basement membrane, but how the alpha1/alpha2/alpha5/alpha6 network fits into this sequence is less clear,(More)
Antibiotic resistance is an ancient problem, owing to the co-evolution of antibiotic-producing and target organisms in the soil and other environments over millennia. The environmental "resistome" is the collection of all genes that directly or indirectly contribute to antibiotic resistance. Many of these resistance determinants originate in(More)
Two-component signal transduction systems are found ubiquitously in prokaryotes, and in archaea, fungi, yeast and some plants, where they regulate physiologic and molecular processes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Two-component systems sense changes in environmental conditions when a specific ligand binds to the receptor domain of(More)
The incidence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is increasing at an alarming rate. Resistance against front-line therapeutics such as the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin has emerged and has spread to highly virulent pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide antibiotics are natural products from the Actinomycetes that(More)
The intermediate protein nestin is expressed in proliferating embryonic tissues and adult tissues undergoing repair. Recently this protein been identified in rodent podocytes. Its role in this cell is unknown, since podocytes are believed to be terminally differentiated and nondividing. We report the first study of nestin in human kidney. Nestin expression(More)