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STUDY OBJECTIVE The prevalence of asthma was assessed to investigate respiratory health effects of airborne emissions from a factory. A geographical information system allowed flexible definition of study areas in terms of their size, distance, and location in relation to the factory. The value of the approach for this type of investigation is focussed on.(More)
BACKGROUND A recurring initiative in graduate education is to find more effective methods to assess specialists' skills. Life-sized simulators could be used to assess the more complex skills expected in specialty practice if a curriculum of relevant exercises were developed that could be simply and reliably scored. The purpose of this study was to develop(More)
BACKGROUND Dedicated skills courses may help to prepare 4th-year medical students for surgical internships. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence the preparedness of 4th-year medical students planning a surgical career, and the role that our skills course plays in that preparedness. METHODS A comprehensive skills course for(More)
BACKGROUND Medical students and residents are expected to be able to manage a variety of critical events after training, but many of these individuals have limited clinical experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Life-sized mannequins that model critical events can be used to evaluate the skills required to manage and treat acute(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthesiologists and anesthesia residents are expected to acquire and maintain skills to manage a wide range of acute intraoperative anesthetic events. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an inventory of simulated intraoperative scenarios provided a reliable and valid measure of anesthesia residents' and anesthesiologists' skill.(More)
PURPOSE This investigation aimed to explore the measurement properties of scores from a patient simulator exercise. METHODS Analytic and holistic scores were obtained for groups of medical students and residents. Item analysis techniques were used to explore the nature of specific examinee actions. Interrater reliability was calculated. Scores were(More)
BACKGROUND In medicine, standard setting methodologies have been developed for both selected-response and performance-based assessments. For simulation-based tasks, research efforts have been directed primarily at assessments that incorporate standardized patients. Mannequin-based evaluations often demand complex, time-sensitive, hierarchically ordered,(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate that instruction of proper team function can occur using high-fidelity simulated trauma resuscitation with video-assisted debriefing and that this process can be integrated rapidly into a standard general surgery curriculum. DESIGN The rater reliability of our team metric was assessed by having physicians and nonphysicians rate(More)
INTRODUCTION Trauma resuscitations require a coordinated response from a diverse group of health care providers. Currently, there are no widely accepted methods of assessing team effectiveness in this setting. Simulation affords a method to assess team effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to use a simulation setting to develop a specialized(More)
INTRODUCTION In the setting of acute injury, a wrong, missed, or delayed diagnosis can impact survival. Clinicians rely on pattern recognition and heuristics to rapidly assess injuries, but an overreliance on these approaches can result in a diagnostic error. Simulation has been advocated as a method for practitioners to learn how to recognize the(More)