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The nucleotide receptor P2X7 has been shown to modulate LPS-induced macrophage production of numerous inflammatory mediators. Although the C-terminal portion of P2X7 is thought to be essential for multiple receptor functions, little is known regarding the structural motifs that lie within this region. We show here that the P2X7 C-terminal domain contains(More)
Extracellular nucleotides such as ATP are present in abundance at sites of inflammation and tissue damage, and these agents exert a potent modulatory effect on macrophage/monocyte function via the nucleotide receptor P2X(7). In this regard, after exposure to bacterial LPS, P2X(7) activation augments expression of the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and(More)
Previous studies have suggested that the P2Z/P2X7 purinergic receptor can participate in nucleotide-induced modulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated inflammatory mediator production. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether antagonism of the P2Z/P2X7 receptor can influence LPS signaling and expression of the inducible form of nitric-oxide(More)
Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and promotes the activation of macrophages and microglia. Although these cells are highly LPS-responsive, they serve unique tissue-specific functions and exhibit different LPS sensitivities. Accordingly, it was of interest to evaluate whether these biological(More)
Activation of the P2X(7) receptor by extracellular nucleotides modulates multiple immune functions, including inflammatory mediator production, membrane fusion events, and apoptosis. Previous studies have revealed that the C terminus of this multimeric cation channel possesses a lipid-interaction motif that has been proposed to regulate receptor function.(More)
Parthenogenesis has been documented in all major jawed vertebrate lineages except mammals and cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes: sharks, batoids and chimeras). Reports of captive female sharks giving birth despite being held in the extended absence of males have generally been ascribed to prior matings coupled with long-term sperm storage by the(More)
Macrophages express several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins and are potently activated by LPS to produce inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have shown that receptors for exogenous nucleotides (P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors) can modulate macrophage production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and nitric oxide (NO) following LPS exposure. Macrophages(More)
Elucidation of a signal transduction pathway essential to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation has the capacity to provide new targets for the treatment of septic shock. In this regard, activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is commonly thought to be critical to LPS-stimulated macrophage inflammatory mediator production, although(More)
In order to screen microsatellites for conservation genetics studies of the species, a total of 23 microsatellite loci from Korean goral (Naemorhedus caudatus), including 15 previously developed loci and 8 new loci in this study, were tested. Eleven microsatellites were screened and subjected to cross-species amplification using a test panel of four(More)