Julie A Sheldon

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Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) in 779 Italian blood donors. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS Sera were tested for antibodies to a latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and a capsid related protein encoded by ORF65. RESULTS Among all Italian donors, 17.7% and 18.7% had(More)
We studied the seroprevalence and transmission of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), among 215 Ugandan children, adolescents and young adults. We measured antibodies to a latent nuclear antigen (LANA) and a lytic cycle protein encoded by open reading frame (orf) 65. Infection with KSHV/HHV8 occurred during early childhood and reached adult(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir (TDF) is an adenosine nucleotide analogue that has been approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It also shows activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with or without lamivudine (LAM)-associated mutations. Development of clinical or virological HBV breakthrough during TDF therapy has not been reported so far. The aim(More)
To investigate transmission of human herpesvirus (HHV)-8, 2546 mother-child pairs were recruited from rural clinics in South Africa and were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens. The prevalence of antibodies in children increased with increasing maternal antibody titer (lytic, chi 21=26, and P<.001; latent, chi 21=55, and P<.001).(More)
BACKGROUND Current protease inhibitors (PIs) are designed against HIV-1, and information on their performance against HIV-2 clinical isolates is scarce. METHODS Genetic and phenotypic analyses using all available PIs were performed in five HIV-2 primary isolates from two patients on regular follow-up who failed PI-HAART. RESULTS HIV-2 proteases before(More)
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is believed to be the aetiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KS accounts for half the reported cancer cases in Uganda, and occurs in endemic and epidemic [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated] forms. We confirmed a high prevalence (74%) of HHV-8 antibodies in 114 HIV-negative Ugandan blood donors, and characterized(More)
BACKGROUND Proinflammatory cytokines play a role in acute coronary events. However, the potential role of antiinflammatory cytokines in the modulation of the atherosclerotic process remains unknown. Interleukin (IL)-10, which is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques, has potent deactivating properties in macrophages and T cells. The aim of this study(More)
BACKGROUND The exact reasons for the high incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) after kidney transplantation are still unknown. Immunosuppression is classically considered as the main risk factor, but the relative risk contributed by the patient's geographic origin and by human herpes virus (HHV)-8 infection still has to be determined. METHODS We carried out(More)
Latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 (LANA-1) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) mediates the episomal replication of the KSHV genome, as well as transcriptional regulation, in latently infected cells. Interaction of LANA-1 with cellular chromatin is required for both these functions. An N-terminal heterochromatin-binding site in LANA-1 is(More)