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Flavonoids comprise the most common group of plant polyphenols and provide much of the flavor and color to fruits and vegetables. More than 5000 different flavonoids have been described. The six major subclasses of flavonoids include the flavones (e.g., apigenin, luteolin), flavonols (e.g., quercetin, myricetin), flavanones (e.g., naringenin, hesperidin),(More)
BACKGROUND Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents aged<20 years; its etiology remains largely unknown. It is believed that embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), the most common subtypes, arise through distinct biologic mechanisms. The authors of this report evaluated incidence and survival(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology of most pediatric neoplasms remains elusive. Examination of population-based incidence data provides insight regarding etiology among various demographic groups and may result in new hypotheses. The objective of the current study was to present updated information regarding childhood cancer incidence and trends in the U.S. overall(More)
Activation of Wnt signaling through beta-catenin mutations contributes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatoblastoma (HB). To explore the contribution of additional Wnt pathway molecules to hepatocarcinogenesis, we examined beta-catenin, AXIN1 and AXIN2 mutations in 73 HCCs and 27 HBs. beta-catenin mutations were detected in 19.2%(More)
Antioxidant nutrients found in fruits, vegetables and other foods are thought to inhibit carcinogenesis and to influence immune status. We evaluated the association of these factors with risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) overall and for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma specifically in a prospective cohort of 35,159 Iowa women(More)
BACKGROUND The MLL 11q23 translocation arises in utero and is present in 75% of infant leukemias. That MLL+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can arise following chemotherapy with DNA topoisomerase II (DNAt2) inhibitors suggests that these substances, which also occur naturally in foods, may contribute toward infant leukemia. We hypothesized that maternal(More)
The molecular defect in four Kurdish Jews with homozygous, mRNA-deficient beta zero thalassemia was investigated. Electrophoretic profiles of pulse-labeled alpha- and beta-globin RNAs are similar to those of non-thalassemics; therefore, at least one of the thalassemic beta-globin alleles is transcribed. During a 30 min actinomycin D chase, most of the(More)
Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency(More)
Atopic disease is hypothesized to be protective against several malignancies, including childhood/adolescent leukemia. To summarize the available epidemiologic evidence, the authors performed a meta-analysis of associations between atopy/allergies, asthma, eczema, hay fever, and hives and childhood/adolescent leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL),(More)
Studies suggest nearly a 20-fold increased risk of leukemia in individuals with Down syndrome. Most of this increased risk appears in the first few decades of life, with the highest incidence in children less than 5 years of age. It is unknown why children with Down syndrome are at such an increased risk of leukemia. With respect to environmental exposures,(More)