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Many studies support a crucial role for oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) in the pathophysiology of unipolar and bipolar depression. These disorders are characterized inter alia by lowered antioxidant defenses, including: lower levels of zinc, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and glutathione; increased lipid peroxidation; damage to proteins, DNA and(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake can result in vitamin D insufficiency. However, limited data are available on actual vitamin D status and predictors in healthy individuals in different regions and by season. METHODS We compared vitamin D status [25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D] in people < 60 years of age using data from(More)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a first-line treatment for depression. They have been reported to regulate serotonin signalling in bone cells and may influence bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SSRIs on bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of women with a lifetime history of depression. In this(More)
Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to report the prevalence, age-of-onset and comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders in an age-stratified representative sample of Australian women aged 20 years and over. METHOD Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed utilising a clinical interview (SCID-I/NP). The lifetime and current prevalence of these disorders was determined(More)
RUNX2 is an essential transcription factor required for skeletal development and cartilage formation. Haploinsufficiency of RUNX2 leads to cleidocranial displaysia (CCD) a skeletal disorder characterised by gross dysgenesis of bones particularly those derived from intramembranous bone formation. A notable feature of the RUNX2 protein is the polyglutamine(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among people with psychiatric illness. AIMS To investigate smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder. METHOD A population-based sample of women was studied using case-control and retrospective cohort study designs. Exposure to smoking was self-reported, and major depressive disorder(More)
BACKGROUND Although there is cross-sectional evidence that changes in the immune system contribute to the pathophysiology of depression, longitudinal data capable of elucidating cause and effect relationships are lacking. AIMS We aimed to determine whether subclinical systemic inflammation, as measured by serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)(More)
OBJECTIVE Key biological factors that influence the development of depression are modified by diet. This study examined the extent to which the high-prevalence mental disorders are related to habitual diet in 1,046 women ages 20-93 years randomly selected from the population. METHOD A diet quality score was derived from answers to a food frequency(More)
BACKGROUND We now know that depression is associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response and activation of cell-mediated immunity, as well as activation of the compensatory anti-inflammatory reflex system. It is similarly accompanied by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), which contribute to neuroprogression in the disorder. The(More)