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This article describes the development and preliminary validation of a brief questionnaire that assesses exposure to a broad range of potentially traumatic events. Items were generated from multiple sources of information. Events were described in behaviorally descriptive terms, consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV(More)
The global prevalence of obesity is increasing across most ages in both sexes. This is contributing to the early emergence of type 2 diabetes and its related epidemic. Having either parent obese is an independent risk factor for childhood obesity. Although the detrimental impacts of diet-induced maternal obesity on adiposity and metabolism in offspring are(More)
This article describes a second treatment-outcome study of cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; CTT-BW). CTT-BW includes trauma history exploration: PTSD education; stress management; exposure to abuse and abuser reminders; self-monitoring of negative self-talk; cognitive therapy for guilt; and modules on(More)
A range of pathophysiological factors can result in a perturbation or restriction of fetal growth, and the cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic adaptations of the fetus to these stimuli will depend on their nature, timing and intensity. The critical importance of these physiological adaptations for both immediate survival and long-term health(More)
1. We have measured arterial blood pressure between 115 and 145 days gestation in normally grown fetal sheep (control group; n = 16) and in fetal sheep in which growth was restricted by experimental restriction of placental growth and development (PR group; n = 13). There was no significant difference in the mean gestational arterial blood pressure between(More)
Small size at birth has been associated with increased blood pressure in adult men and women. In rats, isocaloric protein restriction reduces fetal growth and increases systolic blood pressure in adult offspring. Balanced maternal undernutrition in the rat also increases adult blood pressure, but not consistently. The aim of this study was to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity and related conditions, notably subfertility, are increasingly prevalent. Paternal influences are known to influence offspring health outcome, but the impact of paternal obesity and subfertility on the reproductive health of subsequent generations has been overlooked. METHODS A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity but not(More)
Fetal growth is restricted in primiparous pigs (gilts) compared with dams who have had previous pregnancies (sows), as in other species. In gilts, daily maternal porcine GH (pGH) injections from day 25 to 50 of pregnancy (term approximately 115 day) increase fetal growth and progeny muscularity, and responses in sows are unknown. Whether feeding the(More)
The extent to which maternal nutrition influences fetal growth through effects on placental functional development is unclear. Poor maternal nutrition is a major cause of poor fetal growth which increases neonatal morbidity and mortality, and may also increase the risk of several adult-onset diseases. We have therefore characterized the ontogeny of(More)
The placenta exerts its effects on the growth of the fetus from the beginning of pregnancy via metabolic and endocrine mechanisms. To achieve this, the placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus. These exchanges modulate or programme fetal growth and development. This review(More)