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Nine previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies of human visual information processing were reanalyzed to determine the consistency across experiments of blood flow decreases during active tasks relative to passive viewing of the same stimulus array. Areas showing consistent decreases during active tasks included posterior cingulate/precuneous(More)
Research suggests that the basal ganglia complex is a major component of the neural circuitry that mediates reward-related processing. However, human studies have not yet characterized the response of the basal ganglia to an isolated reward, as has been done in animals. We developed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to identify(More)
Practice of a novel task leads to improved performance. The brain mechanisms associated with practice-induced improvement in performance are largely unknown. To address this question we have examined the functional anatomy of the human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) during the naive and practiced performance of a simple verbal response(More)
Functional neuroimaging was used to investigate three factors that affect reading performance: first, whether a stimulus is a word or pronounceable non-word (lexicality), second, how often a word is encountered (frequency), and third, whether the pronunciation has a predictable spelling-to-sound correspondence (consistency). Comparisons between word naming(More)
The goal of this research was to further our understanding of how the striatum responds to the delivery of affective feedback. Previously, we had found that the striatum showed a pattern of sustained activation after presentation of a monetary reward, in contrast to a decrease in the hemodynamic response after a punishment. In this study, we tested whether(More)
Research has increasingly implicated the striatum in the processing of reward-related information in both animals and humans. However, it is unclear whether human striatal activation is driven solely by the hedonic properties of rewards or whether such activation is reliant on other factors, such as anticipation of upcoming reward or performance of an(More)
A Hebbian model of learning predicts that adults may be able to acquire a nonnative speech contrast if they are trained with stimuli that are exaggerated to make them perceptually distinct. To test these ideas, we asked Japanese adults to identify contrasting [r]-[l] stimuli (e.g., rock-lock) in two training conditions. In the adaptive condition, the(More)
Does the cerebellum influence nonmotor behavior? Recent anatomical studies demonstrate that the output of the cerebellum targets multiple nonmotor areas in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as the cortical motor areas. The projections to different cortical areas originate from distinct output channels within the cerebellar nuclei. The(More)
This review discusses how neuroimaging can contribute to our understanding of a fundamental aspect of skilled reading: the ability to pronounce a visually presented word. One contribution of neuroimaging is that it provides a tool for localizing brain regions that are active during word reading. To assess the extent to which similar results are obtained(More)