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Functional neuroimaging was used to investigate three factors that affect reading performance: first, whether a stimulus is a word or pronounceable non-word (lexicality), second, how often a word is encountered (frequency), and third, whether the pronunciation has a predictable spelling-to-sound correspondence (consistency). Comparisons between word naming(More)
Research has increasingly implicated the striatum in the processing of reward-related information in both animals and humans. However, it is unclear whether human striatal activation is driven solely by the hedonic properties of rewards or whether such activation is reliant on other factors, such as anticipation of upcoming reward or performance of an(More)
Adults are good at learning many things, but there are some exceptions. It can be very difficult for adults to learn to perceive certain speech contrasts that their native language does not use. A classic case in point is the persistent difficulty that native speakers of Japanese face in distinguishing the English liquids [r] and [l]. It is clear that(More)
Does the cerebellum influence nonmotor behavior? Recent anatomical studies demonstrate that the output of the cerebellum targets multiple nonmotor areas in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as the cortical motor areas. The projections to different cortical areas originate from distinct output channels within the cerebellar nuclei. The(More)
BACKGROUND Functional disturbances in reward-related brain systems are thought to play a role in the development of mood, impulse, and substance-abuse disorders. Studies in nonhuman primates have identified brain regions, including the dorsal/ventral striatum and orbital-frontal cortex, in which neural activity is modulated by reward. Recent studies in(More)
Working memory is believed to play a central role in almost all domains of higher cognition, yet the specific mechanisms involved in working memory are still fiercely debated. We describe a neuroimaging experiment with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a companion behavioral experiment, and in both we seek to adjudicate between alternative(More)
Neuroimaging studies of working memory have revealed two sites in the left supramarginal gyrus that may support the short-term storage of phonological information. Activation in the left dorsal aspect of the inferior parietal cortex (DIPC) has been observed in contrasts of working memory load, whereas activation in the ventral aspect of the inferior(More)
The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The current study(More)
Adults have difficulty discriminating nonnative phonetic contrasts, but under certain circumstances training can lead to improvement in this ability. Despite the ubiquitous use of performance feedback in training paradigms in this and many other domains, the mechanisms by which feedback affects learning are not well understood. In this event-related(More)