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Although endothelial dysfunction, defined as abnormal vasoreactivity, is a common early finding in individuals with type 2 diabetes, the endothelium has not been known to regulate metabolism. As PPARgamma, a transcriptional regulator of energy balance, is expressed in endothelial cells, we set out to investigate the role of endothelial cell PPARgamma in(More)
Endothelial dysfunction is a central hallmark of diabetes. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α is a powerful regulator of metabolism, but its role in endothelial cells remains poorly understood. We show here that endothelial PGC-1α expression is high in diabetic rodents and humans and that PGC-1α powerfully blocks endothelial migration in cell culture(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are synthesized within cardiac myocytes and play key roles in modulating cardiovascular signaling. Cardiac myocytes contain both the endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) NO synthases, but the differential roles of these NOS isoforms and the interplay of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen(More)
Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) undergoes a complex pattern of post-translational modifications that regulate its activity. We have recently reported that eNOS is constitutively S-nitrosylated in endothelial cells and that agonists promote eNOS denitrosylation concomitant with enzyme activation (Erwin, P. A., Lin, A. J., Golan, D. E., and Michel,(More)
Caveolin-1 is a scaffolding/regulatory protein that interacts with diverse signaling molecules. Caveolin-1(null) mice have marked metabolic abnormalities, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We found the redox stress plasma biomarker plasma 8-isoprostane was elevated in caveolin-1(null) mice, and discovered that(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) play key roles in physiological and pathological responses in cardiac myocytes. The mechanisms whereby H(2)O(2)-modulated phosphorylation pathways regulate the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in these cells are incompletely understood. We show here that H(2)O(2) treatment of adult mouse(More)
These studies explore the connections between simvastatin, Rac1, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in cultured vascular endothelial cells and in arterial preparations isolated from statin-treated mice. In addition to their prominent effects on lipoprotein metabolism, statins can regulate the small GTPase Rac1, and may also affect the(More)
Hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species are intimately involved in endothelial cell signaling. In many cell types, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been implicated in the control of metabolic responses, but the role of endothelial cell redox signaling in the modulation of AMPK remains to be completely defined. We used RNA interference(More)
MARCKS is an actin-binding protein that modulates vascular endothelial cell migration and cytoskeleton signaling (Kalwa, H., and Michel, T. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 2320-2330). Angiotensin-II is a vasoactive peptide implicated in vascular physiology as well as pathophysiology; the pathways connecting angiotensin-II and cytoskeletal remodeling are(More)
Obesity places major demands on the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in ER stress, a condition that promotes hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. Here we identify the transcription factor, Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), as an essential mediator of ER stress-induced insulin resistance in the liver. Mice with a(More)