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T-type calcium channels represent a key pathway for Ca(2+) entry near the resting membrane potential. Increasing evidence supports a unique role of these channels in fast and low-threshold exocytosis in an action potential-independent manner, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unknown. Here, we report the existence of a(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the aggregation of α-synuclein into Lewy bodies. Existing therapies address motor dysfunction but do not halt progression of the disease. A still unresolved question is the biochemical pathway that modulates the(More)
BACKGROUND Cysteine string protein (CSPalpha) is a synaptic vesicle protein that displays unique anti-neurodegenerative properties. CSPalpha is a member of the conserved J protein family, also called the Hsp40 (heat shock protein of 40 kDa) protein family, whose importance in protein folding has been recognized for many years. Deletion of the CSPalpha in(More)
To date, nearly 35.6 million people world wide live with dementia, and the situation is going to get worse by 2050 with 115.4 million cases.(1) In the western world, the prevalence for dementia in people over the age of 60 is greater than 5% and two thirds are due to Alzheimer disease,(2) (-) (5) the most common form of dementias.   Alzheimer disease (AD),(More)
In response to a conditioning stress, the expression of a set of molecular chaperones called heat shock proteins is increased. In neurons, stress-induced and constitutively expressed molecular chaperones protect against damage induced by ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases, however the molecular basis of this protection is not known. Here we have(More)
Neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels have evolved as one of the most important players for calcium entry into presynaptic endings responsible for the release of neurotransmitters. In turn, and to fine-tune synaptic activity and neuronal communication, numerous neurotransmitters exert a potent negative feedback over the calcium signal provided by G(More)
Myelinated axons efficiently transmit information over long distances. The apposed myelin sheath confers favorable electrical properties, but restricts access of the axon to its extracellular milieu. Therefore, axonal metabolic support may require specific axo-myelinic communication. Here we explored activity-dependent glutamate-mediated signaling from axon(More)
Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels are essential contributors to neuronal physiology where they play complex yet fundamentally important roles in shaping intrinsic excitability of nerve cells and neurotransmission. Aberrant neuronal excitability caused by alteration of T-type channel expression has been linked to a number of neuronal disorders(More)
Perhaps one of the most remarkable features of T-type calcium channels is their low-threshold of activation that makes these channels important candidates for calcium entry near the resting membrane potential of neurons. Hence, they mediate low-threshold burst discharges that occur during different forms of neuronal rhythmogenesis, but play also important(More)