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OBJECTIVE Cytokines, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and eicosanoids control local and systemic inflammation. Conventional soybean oil-based lipid emulsions used for parenteral nutrition may aggravate the leukocyte inflammatory response or adhesion to the vessel wall. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions, in contrast, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect. (More)
RATIONALE Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators derived from EPA and DHA possess reduced inflammatory(More)
While enteral nutrition is the basis for the critically ill, parenteral nutrition is often used when a sufficient enteral nutrition is not or not fully achievable. Lipids are a mainstay of caloric supply in both cases as they combine the provision of building blocks for the membranes and are precursors for function molecules including lipid mediators(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) still represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Beneficial effects have been described after activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by fibrates such as WY 14,643 (WY) in inflammatory models. In the present study, the impact of WY was investigated in a model of(More)
Forty-seven specimens representing 35 species or varieties of Amanita were examined for the presence of ibotenic acid, muscimol, stizolobic acid, stizolobinic acid, aminohexadienoic acid and chlorocrotylglycine. In addition, crude extracts of A. muscaria were examined chromatographically for the presence of methyltetrahydrocarboline carboxylic acid (MTC).(More)
INTRODUCTION Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of mortality in intensive care units. Patients with ARDS often require parenteral nutrition with lipid emulsions as essential components. Besides being an energy supply, these lipid emulsions might display differential modulatory effects on lung integrity and inflammation. METHODS In(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis are the major causes of mortality in intensive care units. Lymphocytes apoptosis is a hallmark feature of late detrimental sepsis. Parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients is based on lipid emulsions, but the impact of ALI and lipid emulsions on lymphocytes has not been defined. The effects of intravenously infused(More)
Long-term administration of PUFA is known to modulate immune functions and apoptotic pathways depending on the respective amount of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA). Data on short-term effects on apoptotic pathways are rare. Apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes is the hallmark of detrimental sepsis. Therefore, we aimed to compare the immediate effects of(More)
INTRODUCTION Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of mortality in intensive care units. As there is rising evidence about immuno-modulatory effects of lipid emulsions required for parenteral nutrition of ARDS patients, we sought to investigate whether infusion of conventional soybean oil (SO)-based or fish oil (FO)-based lipid(More)