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Ca2+ sparks were monitored by confocal laser-scanning microscopy of fluo-3 at video rates, in fast twitch muscle fibres, stimulated by exposure to caffeine and/or low [Mg2+]. Scanning was in two spatial dimensions ('2D') or 2D plus time, at 4 ms per image frame. Sparks were identified in 2D images of normalized fluorescence by an automatic procedure, which(More)
Intracellular Ca(2+) signals control the development and regeneration of spinal axons downstream of chemical guidance cues, but little is known about the roles of mechanical cues in axon guidance. Here we show that transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) subunits assemble mechanosensitive (MS) channels on Xenopus neuronal growth cones that regulate(More)
In striated muscles, intracellular Ca(2+) release is tightly controlled by the membrane voltage sensor. Ca(2+) ions are necessary mediators of this control in cardiac but not in skeletal muscle, where their role is ill-understood. An intrinsic gating oscillation of Ca(2+) release-not involving the voltage sensor-is demonstrated in frog skeletal muscle(More)
The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor type I (InsP3R-I) is the principle channel for intracellular calcium (Ca2+) release in many cell types, including central neurons. It is regulated by endogenous compounds like Ca2+ and ATP, by protein partners, and by posttranslational modification. We report that the InsP3R-I is modified by O-linked(More)
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an immunomodulatory and proinflammatory cytokine implicated in neuro-inflammation and neuronal damage in response to cerebral ischemia. The present study tested the hypothesis that anti-TNF-α agents may be protective against cerebral infarction. Transient focal ischemia was artificially induced in anesthetized adult(More)
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