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We report the design and evaluation of PCR primers 63f and 1387r for amplification of 16S rRNA genes from bacteria. Their specificity and efficacy were tested systematically with a bacterial species and environmental samples. They were found to be more useful for 16S rRNA gene amplification in ecological and systematic studies than PCR amplimers that are(More)
Alterations in the human intestinal microbiota are linked to conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity. The microbiota also undergoes substantial changes at the extremes of life, in infants and older people, the ramifications of which are still being explored. We applied pyrosequencing of over 40,000 16S rRNA(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed worldwide to treat morbid obesity and is also known as metabolic surgery to reflect its beneficial metabolic effects especially with respect to improvement in type 2 diabetes. Understanding surgical weight loss mechanisms and metabolic modulation is required to enhance patient benefits and(More)
Alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are associated with several chronic conditions, including obesity and inflammatory diseases. The microbiota of older people displays greater inter-individual variation than that of younger adults. Here we show that the faecal microbiota composition from 178 elderly subjects formed groups, correlating with(More)
Molecular ecological surveys of the human gut microbiota to date have focused on the prokaryotic fraction of the community and have revealed a remarkable degree of bacterial diversity and functionality. However, there is a dearth of information on the eukaryotic composition of the microbiota, and no culture-independent sequence-based surveys of human faeces(More)
BACKGROUND The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents one of the most densely populated microbial ecosystems studied to date. Although this microbial consortium has been recognized to have a crucial impact on human health, its precise composition is still subject to intense investigation. Among the GIT microbiota, bifidobacteria represent an(More)
Cancer has long been considered a genetic disease. However, accumulating evidence supports the involvement of infectious agents in the development of cancer, especially in those organs that are continuously exposed to microorganisms, such as the large intestine. Recent next-generation sequencing studies of the intestinal microbiota now offer an(More)
BACKGROUND Variations in the composition of the human intestinal microbiota are linked to diverse health conditions. High-throughput molecular technologies have recently elucidated microbial community structure at much higher resolution than was previously possible. Here we compare two such methods, pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic array, and evaluate(More)
Bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) catalyze the "gateway" reaction in a wider pathway of bile acid modification by the gut microbiota. Because bile acids function as signaling molecules regulating their own biosynthesis, lipid absorption, cholesterol homeostasis, and local mucosal defenses in the intestine, microbial BSH activity has the potential to greatly(More)
Gut microbiota shows host-specific diversity and temporal stability and significantly contributes to maintenance of a healthy gut. However, in inflammatory bowel disease, this microbiota has been implicated as a contributory factor to the illness. This study compared bacterial dynamics in Crohn's disease patients to those in a control group using a(More)