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Cognitive decline after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery has been a concern since the advent of CPB procedures. A primary focus of many studies on this topic has been to quantify the incidence of post-CPB cognitive impairment. However, studies that have used traditional parametric statistics have generally failed to confirm that long-lasting (> or = 1(More)
Elemental associations permit subjects to solve problems when the significance of the relevant stimulus elements are consistent from trial to trial but do not allow subjects to solve problems that require them to construct and use representations of stimulus conjunctions or configurations to guide their behavior. Recent research with brain-damaged and(More)
Long-term adrenalectomy (ADX) causes a nearly complete and selective loss of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Previously, learning and memory deficits have been observed following ADX-induced granule cell degeneration for tasks that require the hippocampus. Our objective here was to determine whether corticosterone (CORT)(More)
Numerous studies purport to show that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery is associated with persistent postoperative cognitive decline. In J. R. Keith et al. (2002), the authors argued that reports of post-CPB cognitive declines have often been quantified using data analysis methods that were based on tenuous assumptions and overlooked problems associated(More)
Chronic fluoxetine increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). In view of the widespread clinical use of fluoxetine and the well-established role of the DG in memory, surprisingly few studies have examined the effects of fluoxetine on memory and hippocampal electrophysiology. Additionally, few studies have evaluated the potential for fluoxetine to(More)
Place learning was assessed in three species of voles (Microtus ochrogaster, M. montanus, and M. pennsylvanicus) with the Morris swim task. The performance of all 3 species and both sexes improved with training on the hidden-platform version of the Morris swim task, which indicates that all groups were able to learn to locate a spatial goal without local(More)
5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is frequently used as a mitotic marker in studies of cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported cytotoxic effects of BrdU on neural progenitor cells in embryonic and neonatal brains in vivo and in adult tissue studied in vitro. The present study was conducted to assess whether BrdU interferes with cell proliferation and(More)
It is generally believed that the hippocampus is not required for simple discrimination learning. However, a small number of studies have shown that hippocampus damage impairs retention of a previously learned visual discrimination task. We propose that, although simple discrimination learning may proceed in the absence of the hippocampus, it plays an(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the benzodiazepines, midazolam and chlordiazepoxide, and the barbiturate, pentobarbital, on spatial learning, in a within-subject, repeated-acquisition and performance procedure adapted to the Morris Swim Task. In the presence of one stimulus arrangement, rats learned to swim to a hidden escape(More)
RATIONALE Some classes of drugs can selectively affect learning (i.e., acquisition of behavior) at doses that do not affect performance (i.e., previously learned behavior). Some drugs (e.g., benzodiazepines) show selective effects on acquisition across a wide variety of tasks. Other drugs [e.g., N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists and opiate agonists],(More)