Julian R. G. Evans

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Chemiosmotic coupling is universal: practically all cells harness electrochemical proton gradients across membranes to drive ATP synthesis, powering biochemistry. Autotrophic cells, including phototrophs and chemolithotrophs, also use proton gradients to power carbon fixation directly. The universality of chemiosmotic coupling suggests that it arose very(More)
The surge of interest in and scientific publications on the structure and properties of nanocomposites has made it rather difficult for the novice to comprehend the physical structure of these new materials and the relationship between their properties and those of the conventional range of composite materials. Some of the questions that arise are: How(More)
Fine ceramic lattices with spatial resolution <100 microm and having precise dimensions and intricate hierarchical structure are fabricated by extrusion freeforming, a rapid prototyping technique, which allows overall shape and structure to be controlled by computer. The procedure can be used for any fine ceramic powder and can therefore find applications(More)
The dissolution behaviour of calcium phosphate filaments made by extrusion freeforming for hard tissue scaffolds was measured. The solubility of filaments with different HA/beta-TCP ratios sintered at temperatures from 1,100 to 1,300 degrees C was measured under simulated physiological conditions (tris buffer solution: tris(hydroxyl)(More)
In this paper, we presented applications of millimetrewave EBG structures fabricated using a rapid prototyping technique based on extrusion freeforming. Numerical simulations were performed for the design of millimetrewave woodpile structures. The fabricated woodpile structures have been measured and showed a good agreement with the simulated results. A(More)
We present design methodologies for directive millimeter-wave antennas using free-formed three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures. Dispersion characteristics of 3-D EBGs have been computed by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations and the designed EBGs have been fabricated by using the extrusion free-forming technique. The(More)
Hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate mixtures of various compositions were extruded by a solid free-forming process to form lattice structures to serve as hard tissue scaffolds. The unwelded filaments, sintered at temperatures from 1100 to 1300 degrees C, had radii from 115 to 135 microm and were tested in three point flexural loading using a purpose-built(More)
We demonstrate five methods of arranging smectite clay tactoids into layered arrangements as a part of the quest for the biomimetic simulation of nacre. Provided the clay is not fully exfoliated, the tactoids retain sufficient rigidity for alignment and we present micrographs which demonstrate these ordered structures. This paves the way for exploration of(More)
This work is prompted by the quest for nanocomposites in which ordered, layered reinforcement preforms similar in structure to the arrangements seen in nacre are achieved without complex automated layer-by-layer assembly. Lamellar structures were obtained in montmorillonite films simply by slow drying without the use of additives. Clay alignment was found(More)
This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the London University Search Instrument (LUSI) which was recently commissioned to create and test combinatorial libraries of ceramic compositions. The instrument uses commercially available powders, milled as necessary to create thick-film libraries by ink-jet printing. Multicomponent mixtures(More)