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Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade recently was discovered to play an important role in synaptic plasticity in area CA1 of rat hippocampus. However, the upstream mechanisms regulating MAPK activity and the downstream effectors of MAPK in the hippocampus are uncharacterized. In the present studies we observed that hippocampal(More)
We investigated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) modulation of dendritic, A-type K+ channels in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. Activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) leads to an increase in the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials in distal dendrites through downregulation of transient K+(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is among the most lethal human cancers in part because it is insensitive to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Studying a mouse model of PDA that is refractory to the clinically used drug gemcitabine, we found that the tumors in this model were poorly perfused and poorly vascularized, properties that are shared with human(More)
In this review we describe an emerging understanding of the roles of the Extracellular-signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) cascade in learning and memory. We begin by describing several behavioral memory paradigms and review data implicating ERK as an essential component of the signal transduction mechanisms subserving these(More)
Genome rearrangements, especially amplifications and deletions, have regularly been observed as responses to sustained application of the same strong selective pressure in microbial populations growing in continuous culture. We studied eight strains of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) isolated after 100-500 generations of growth in glucose-limited(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK has recently become a focus of studies of synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Due to the prominent role of potassium channels in regulating the electrical properties of membranes, modulation of these channels by ERK could play an important role in mediating learning-related synaptic plasticity in the CNS.(More)
Recent evidence suggests that K(+) channels composed of Kv4.2 alpha-subunits underlie a transient current in hippocampal CA1 neurons and ventricular myocytes, and activation of the cAMP second messenger cascade has been shown to modulate this transient current. We determined if Kv4.2 alpha-subunits were directly phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein(More)
Voltage-gated A-type potassium channels such as Kv4.2 regulate generation of action potentials and are localized abundantly in the hippocampus and striatum. Phosphorylation consensus sites for various kinases exist within the sequence of the potassium channel subunit Kv4.2, including consensus sites for extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model for long-term memory, is generally acknowledged to consist of both a short-term phase that is characterized by a dependence on autonomous protein kinase activity, and a long-term phase that is characterized by a dependence on changes in gene expression and new protein synthesis. Similarly, long-term memory(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is essential for both embryonic and adult growth, activating gene transcription via specific nuclear receptors. It is generated, via a retinaldehyde intermediate, from retinol (vitamin A). RA levels require precise regulation by controlled synthesis and catabolism, and when RA concentrations deviate from normal, in either direction,(More)