Julian M. L. Budd

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Using data that are available in various publications, a quantitative analysis has been made of the geniculocortical input to layer IVC of the macaque striate cortex. The data suggest that only 1.3-1.9% of the excitatory, or asymmetric synapses in layer IVC alpha of striate cortex are provided by the neurons of the magnocellular layers of the LGN. This(More)
Excitatory lateral connections within the primary visual cortex are thought to link neurons with similar receptive field properties. Here we studied whether this rule can predict the distribution of excitatory connections in relation to cortical location and orientation preference in the cat visual cortex. To this end, we obtained orientation maps of areas(More)
The functional specificity of the projections of single large basket cells of the cat primary visual cortex was studied using novel analytical approaches. The distribution of the labelled axons and that of the target cells were three-dimensionally reconstructed and compared quantitatively to orientation, direction and ocular dominance maps obtained with the(More)
The brain contains a complex network of axons rapidly communicating information between billions of synaptically connected neurons. The morphology of individual axons, therefore, defines the course of information flow within the brain. More than a century ago, Ramón y Cajal proposed that conservation laws to save material (wire) length and limit conduction(More)
OBJECTIVE Assess ustekinumab efficacy (week 24/week 52) and safety (week 16/week 24/week 60) in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) despite treatment with conventional and/or biological anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents. METHODS In this phase 3, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial, 312 adults with active PsA were randomised (stratified(More)
In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral(More)
Neocortical theta-band oscillatory activity is associated with cognitive tasks involving learning and memory. This oscillatory activity is proposed to originate from the synchronization of interconnected layer V intrinsic bursting (IB) neurons by recurrent excitation. To test this hypothesis, a sparsely connected spiking circuit model based on empirical(More)
We evaluated 183 patients with brain ischemia for an embolic source, using transesophageal echocardiography with extensive imaging of the thoracic aorta. There were mobile, frond-like projections of aortic plaque in seven (4%) patients. The plaque originated on a wide base on the posterior aspect of the ascending aorta at its junction with the transverse(More)
Corticothalamic feedback is believed to play an important role in selectively regulating the flow of sensory information from thalamus to cortex. But despite its importance, the size and nature of corticothalamic pathway connectivity is not fully understood. In light of recent empirical data, the aim of this paper was to quantify the contribution of area 17(More)