Carbon emissions from industry are dominated by production of goods in steel, cement plastic, paper, and aluminum. Demand for these materials is anticipated to double at least by 2050, by which time global carbon emissions must be reduced by at least 50%. To evaluate the challenge of meeting this target the global flows of these materials and their… (More)
In this paper, we review the energy requirements to make materials on a global scale by focusing on the five construction materials that dominate energy used in material production: steel, cement, paper, plastics and aluminium. We then estimate the possibility of reducing absolute material production energy by half, while doubling production from the… (More)
Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting… (More)
—Actuators that bend slice lips are commonly used in cross-directional (CD) control systems for paper making and plastic film extrusion. A dynamic model of these actuators is developed which is used to investigate their spatial modes and dynamic responses. The model shows that both the shape and the amplitude of the spatial response depend upon the… (More)
Sine law Deformation mechanics Shear spinning Pressing Forming limits a b s t r a c t The deformation mechanism of incremental sheet forming (ISF) is examined experimentally through forming specially prepared copper sheets. Strain distributions through the thickness of the sheets are measured for two configurations of ISF: two-point incremen-tal forming… (More)
1 [COMMENTS ON TEXT BY TSU TO REVIEWER: This chapter has been allocated 45 template pages, 2 currently it counts 67 pages (excluding this page and the bibliography), so it is 22 pages over target. 3 Reviewers are kindly asked to indicate where the chapter could be shortened.] 4 Turquoise highlights are inserted comments from Authors or TSU i.e.
Reusing steel and aluminum components would reduce the need for new production, possibly creating significant savings in carbon emissions. Currently, there is no clearly defined set of strategies or barriers to enable assessment of appropriate component reuse; neither is it possible to predict future levels of reuse. This work presents a global assessment… (More)