Julian K. C. Ma

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Imagine a world in which any protein, either naturally occurring or designed by man, could be produced safely, inexpensively and in almost unlimited quantities using only simple nutrients, water and sunlight. This could one day become reality as we learn to harness the power of plants for the production of recombinant proteins on an agricultural scale.(More)
A series of small-molecule microbicides has been developed for vaginal delivery to prevent heterosexual HIV transmission, but results from human clinical trials have been disappointing. Protein-based microbicides, such as HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies, have been considered as an alternative approach. Despite their promising safety profile and efficacy,(More)
Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a microbicide candidate that inactivates a wide range of HIV strains by binding to gp120. Production of CV-N, or any protein microbicide, needs to be at extremely high levels and low cost to have an impact on global health. Thus, it is unlikely that fermentor-based systems will be suitable, including recombinant E. coli, where CV-N(More)
Among the many plant-based production systems that have been developed for pharmaceutical proteins, seeds have the useful advantage of accumulating proteins in a relatively small volume and in a stable environment in which they are protected from degradation. Several seed crops, including cereals, grain legumes and oilseeds, have been explored as production(More)
The use of genetically modified (GM) plants to synthesize proteins that are subsequently processed, regulated and sold as pharmaceuticals challenges two very different established regulatory frameworks, one concerning GM plants and the other covering the development of biotechnology-derived drugs. Within these regulatory systems, specific regulations and(More)
Significant advances over the last few years have seen plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) move from the exploratory research phase towards clinical trials, with the first commercial products for human use expected to reach the market by 2009. Europe has yet to witness the commercial application of PMP technology, although at least one product has begun phase(More)
Rhizosecretion is an attractive technology for the production of recombinant proteins from transgenic plants. However, to date, yields of plant-derived recombinant pharmaceuticals by this method have been too low for commercial viability. Studies conducted focused on three transgenic plant lines grown in hydroponic culture medium, two expressing monoclonal(More)
The first recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical protein (PDP) was human serum albumin, initially produced in 1990 in transgenic tobacco and potato plants (Sijmons et al, 1990). Fifteen years on, the first technical proteins produced in transgenic plants are on the market, and proof of concept has been established for the production of many therapeutic(More)
Plant molecular pharming has emerged as a niche technology for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products indicated for chronic and infectious diseases, particularly for products that do not fit into the current industry-favored model of fermenter-based production campaigns. In this review, we explore the areas where molecular pharming can make the greatest(More)
High-level expression of foreign proteins in chloroplasts of transplastomic plants provides excellent opportunities for the development of oral vaccines against a range of debilitating or fatal diseases. The HIV-1 capsid protein p24 and a fusion of p24 with the negative regulatory protein Nef (p24-Nef) accumulate to ∼4% and ∼40% of the total soluble protein(More)