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BACKGROUND Partial blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels is neuroprotective in experimental models of inflammatory demyelinating disease. In this phase 2 trial, we aimed to assess whether the sodium-channel blocker lamotrigine is also neuroprotective in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. METHODS Patients with secondary progressive(More)
Although there is substantial brain grey matter pathology in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), there has been limited investigation of its contribution to disability.This study investigated the correlation of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measures taken from brain grey matter, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and lesions with(More)
BACKGROUND Although MRI measures of grey matter abnormality correlate with clinical disability in multiple sclerosis, it is uncertain whether grey matter abnormality measured on MRI is entirely due to a primary grey matter process or whether it is partly related to disease in the white matter. METHODS To explore potential mechanisms of grey matter damage(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroaxonal loss is a pathological substrate of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be estimated in vivo by measuring tissue atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While there is some evidence that brain atrophy correlates better with disability than T2 lesion load in secondary progressive MS, the clinical relevance of(More)
MRI measures of tissue atrophy within the central nervous system may reflect the neurodegenerative process which underpins the progressive phase of multiple sclerosis (MS). There has been limited longitudinal investigation of MRI-detected atrophy in secondary progressive MS. This study includes 56 subjects with secondary progressive MS. Subjects were(More)
OBJECTIVE Lamotrigine trial in SPMS was a randomised control trial to assess whether partial blockade of sodium channels has a neuroprotective effect. The current study was an additional study to investigate the value of neurofilament (NfH) and other biomarkers in predicting prognosis and/or response to treatment. METHODS SPMS patients who attended the(More)
The association of pathology and neurological deficit with quality of life (QoL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not fully understood. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of pathology--T1 and T2 lesion volume and ratio; active T2 lesion number; global and regional brain volume and atrophy; magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) for lesions,(More)
Numerous studies have appeared in the literature which suggest that paternal alcohol consumption may have adverse effects on subsequent offspring. However, to date, no teratologic examination has been performed on fetuses conceived subsequent to paternal alcohol consumption. The present study has examined fetuses conceived by alcohol-treated male Swiss(More)
In a shuttle-box self-stimulation paradigm, analgesic doses of morphine increase the amount of time a rat leaves rewarding brain stimulation on, without altering average OFF times. This paradigm may serve as a model for the euphoria induced by narcotic drugs and as a useful tool for evaluating the reinforcing effects of drugs.