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After gene rearrangement, immunoglobulin V genes are further diversified by either somatic hypermutation or gene conversion. Hypermutation (in man and mouse) occurs by the fixation of individual, non-templated nucleotide substitutions. Gene conversion (in chicken) is templated by a set of upstream V pseudogenes. Here we show that if the RAD51 paralogues(More)
We have previously reported that DT40 cells deficient in the Y-family polymerase REV1 are defective in replicating G-quadruplex DNA. In vivo this leads to uncoupling of DNA synthesis from redeposition of histones displaced ahead of the replication fork, which in turn leads to loss of transcriptional repression due to failure to recycle pre-existing(More)
The accurate propagation of histone marks during chromosomal replication is proposed to rely on the tight coupling of replication with the recycling of parental histones to the daughter strands. Here, we show in the avian cell line DT40 that REV1, a key regulator of DNA translesion synthesis at the replication fork, is required for the maintenance of(More)
Monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and PCNA promotes DNA repair. It causes chromatin accumulation of FANCD2 and facilitates PCNA's recruitment of translesion polymerases to stalled replication. USP1, a protease that removes monoubiquitin from FANCD2 and PCNA, was thought to reverse the DNA damage response of these substrates. We disrupted USP1 in chicken cells to(More)
REV1-deficient chicken DT40 cells are compromised in replicating G quadruplex (G4)-forming DNA. This results in localised, stochastic loss of parental chromatin marks and changes in gene expression. We previously proposed that this epigenetic instability arises from G4-induced replication fork stalls disrupting the accurate propagation of chromatin(More)
Somatic hypermutation and isotype switch recombination occur in germinal center B cells, are linked to transcription, and are similarly affected by deficiency in MutS homologue (MSH)2. Class-switch recombination is abrogated by disruption of genes encoding components of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK(cs))/Ku complex and likely(More)
Following productive V gene rearrangement, the functional immunoglobulin genes in the B lymphocytes of man and mouse are subjected to two further types of genetic modification. Class-switch recombination, a region-specific but largely nonhomologous recombination process, leads to a change in constant region of the expressed antibody. Somatic hypermutation(More)
Unlike histone H3, which is present only in S phase, the variant histone H3.3 is expressed throughout the cell cycle [1] and is incorporated into chromatin independent of replication [2]. Recently, H3.3 has been implicated in the cellular response to ultraviolet (UV) light [3]. Here, we show that chicken DT40 cells completely lacking H3.3 are hypersensitive(More)
REV1 is central to the DNA damage response of eukaryotes through an as yet poorly understood role in translesion synthesis. REV1 is a member of the Y-type DNA polymerase family and is capable of in vitro deoxycytidyl transferase activity opposite a range of damaged bases. However, non-catalytic roles for REV1 have been suggested by the Saccharomyces(More)
Somatic mutations in human cancers show unevenness in genomic distribution that correlate with aspects of genome structure and function. These mutations are, however, generated by multiple mutational processes operating through the cellular lineage between the fertilized egg and the cancer cell, each composed of specific DNA damage and repair components and(More)