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Ascertaining the impact of uncharacterized perturbations on the cell is a fundamental problem in biology. Here, we describe how a single assay can be used to monitor hundreds of different cellular functions simultaneously. We constructed a reference database or "compendium" of expression profiles corresponding to 300 diverse mutations and chemical(More)
Mutations in genes of the Polycomb (Pc) group cause abnormal segmental development due to ectopic expression of the homeotic products of the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes. Here the requirements for Pc group genes in controlling the abdA and AbdB products of the bithorax complex are described. Embryos containing mutations in the genes Polycomb (Pc),(More)
Inner ear sensory hair cell death is observed in the majority of hearing and balance disorders, affecting the health of more than 600 million people worldwide. While normal aging is the single greatest contributor, exposure to environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and antineoplastic agents are significant(More)
The Polycomb (Pc) group genes encode repressors that restrict expression of homeotic genes to precise domains along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We describe germ-line transformation constructs, containing portions of the bxd, iab-2, or iab-3 regulatory regions of the bithorax complex (BX-C), that are controlled by Pc group products in embryos. There(More)
Telomere length-variation in deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to identify genes and pathways that regulate telomere length. We found 72 genes that when deleted confer short telomeres, and 80 genes that confer long telomeres relative to those of wild-type yeast. Among identified genes, 88 have not been previously implicated in telomere(More)
The Drosophila extra sex combs (esc) protein, a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), is a transcriptional repressor of homeotic genes. Genetic studies have shown that esc protein is required in early embryos at about the time that other PcG proteins become engaged in homeotic gene repression. The esc protein consists primarily of multiple copies of the WD(More)
1. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the recombinant mouse P2X(4) receptor and to compare its pharmacological properties with those of the human and rat orthologues. 2. Whole cell recordings were made from rafts of HEK-293 cells stably expressing recombinant mouse, rat or human P2X(4) receptors, using Cs-aspartate containing electrodes(More)
In vertebrate neuromuscular junctions, ATP is stored at the motor nerve terminals and is co-released with acetylcholine during neural stimulation. Here, we provide several lines of evidence that the synaptic ATP can act as a synapse-organizing factor to induce the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in muscles,(More)
The extra sex combs (ESC) and Enhancer of zeste [E(Z)] proteins, members of the Polycomb group (PcG) of transcriptional repressors, interact directly and are coassociated in fly embryos. We report that these two proteins are components of a 600-kDa complex in embryos. Using gel filtration and affinity chromatography, we show that this complex is(More)
Spatial boundaries of homeotic gene expression are initiated and maintained by two sets of transcriptional repressors: the gap gene products and the Polycomb group proteins. Previously, the Hunchback (HB) protein has been implicated in setting the anterior expression limit of the UBX homeotic protein in parasegment 6. Here we investigate DNA elements and(More)