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The immunological synapse is a specialized cell-cell junction between T cell and antigen-presenting cell surfaces. It is characterized by a central cluster of antigen receptors, a ring of integrin family adhesion molecules, and temporal stability over hours. The role of this specific organization in signaling for T cell activation has been controversial. We(More)
In contrast to the conventional dogma that carbohydrates are poorly immunogenic T-cell-independent antigens, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs) can significantly stimulate T-cell proliferation and regulate abscess formation in bacterial infection. Despite their similar biological activities, ZPSs from various bacteria are greatly different in primary(More)
Equilibrium binding experiments are widely used for the accurate characterization of binding and competitive binding behavior in biological systems. Modern high-throughput discovery efforts in chemical biology rely heavily upon this principle. Here, we derive exact analytical expressions for general competitive binding models which can also explain a(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, and inflammatory disease of connective tissue with unknown etiology. We investigated whether aberrant immune responses to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a major component of joint cartilage, joint fluid, and other soft connective tissue, causes this disease. Here we show that injection of GAGs such as hyaluronic(More)
In the azoxymethane (AOM) model of experimental rodent colon cancer, cholic acid and its colonic metabolite deoxycholic acid (DCA) strongly promote tumorigenesis. In contrast, we showed that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a low abundance bile acid, inhibited AOM tumorigenesis. Dietary UDCA also blocked the development of tumors with activated Ras and(More)
Mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene, or its downstream target beta-catenin, have been implicated in the initiation of most sporadic human colorectal epithelial neoplasms. These mutations, in turn, lead to aberrant nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and subsequent activation of the beta-catenin/Tcf transcription factor(More)
CONTEXT New generations of hematology analyzers have made the routine automated quantification of immature granulocytes (IGs) in peripheral blood samples accessible as a powerful clinical parameter. OBJECTIVE The use of IGs has previously been studied mostly in hospitalized patients with sepsis. We investigated the use of IGs in the outpatient setting.(More)
We report a case of hemorrhagic pulmonary oxalosis secondary to a noninvasive Aspergillus niger fungus ball. A patient with cavitary lung disease and hemoptysis developed progressive lung infiltrates and intractable metabolic acidosis leading to death. At autopsy, aspergillomas were identified in both the right upper and middle lobes surrounded by a large(More)
The successful use of Bacillus anthracis as a lethal biological weapon has prompted renewed research interest in the development of more effective vaccines against anthrax. The disease consists of three critical components: spore, bacillus, and toxin, elimination of any of which confers at least partial protection against anthrax. Current remedies rely on(More)
Discovery of tissue-specific biomarkers for human cancer is crucial for early diagnosis and molecular understanding of the disease. To overcome the limitations posed by the large dynamic concentration range and compositional complexity of tissue biomacromolecules, we applied heparin affinity fractionation for proteomic enrichment. Comparing the proteomes of(More)