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Puberty is a time of striking changes in cognition and behavior. To indirectly assess the effects of puberty-related influences on the underlying neuroanatomy of these behavioral changes we will review and synthesize neuroimaging data from typically developing children and adolescents and from those with anomalous hormone or sex chromosome profiles. The(More)
OBJECTIVE An extra X chromosome in males (XXY), known as Klinefelter syndrome, is associated with characteristic physical, cognitive, and behavioral features of variable severity. The objective of this study was to examine possible neuroanatomical substrates of these cognitive and behavioral features during childhood and adolescence. METHODS MRI brain(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a severe form of the adult-onset disorder with a high rate of premorbid developmental abnormalities. Early symptoms of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have been reported in five independent studies of COS. In this study, we compared evidence for premorbid PDD as a nonspecific manifestation of impaired(More)
OBJECTIVE Clozapine is a unique atypical antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Plasma concentration of clozapine and its major metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) as well as the ratio of NDMC to clozapine have been reported to be predictors of clozapine response. Here we evaluate these as well as other measures in an(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to study and treat many neuropsychiatric conditions. However, information regarding its tolerability in the pediatric population is lacking. OBJECTIVE This study aims to investigate the tolerability aspects of tDCS in the childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS)(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a rare but severe form of the disorder that is frequently treatment resistant. The psychiatrist has a limited evidence base to guide treatment, particularly as there are no trials in children comparing atypical antipsychotics, the mainstay of current treatment. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of(More)
Sleep disturbances in psychiatric disease have long been reported. However, research on sleep disturbances in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders is limited. We examined the relationship of sleep disturbance to clinical severity and co-morbid diagnoses (e.g. anxiety), for a population with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). Sixty-one COS patients(More)
OBJECTIVE To document high rates and clinical correlates of nonauditory hallucinations in childhood onset schizophrenia (COS). METHOD Within a sample of 117 pediatric patients (mean age 13.6 years), diagnosed with COS, the presence of auditory, visual, somatic/tactile, and olfactory hallucinations was examined using the Scale for the Assessment of(More)
Many cognitive, emotional and behavioural traits, as well as psychiatric disorders are highly heritable. However, identifying the specific genes and mechanisms by which this heritability manifests has been elusive. One approach to make this problem more tractable has been to attempt to identify and quantify biological markers that are intermediate steps(More)
OBJECTIVE Cortical gray matter (GM) abnormalities in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) progress during adolescence ultimately localizing to prefrontal and temporal cortices by early adult age. A previous study of 52 nonpsychotic siblings of COS probands had significant prefrontal and temporal GM deficits that appeared to "normalize" by age(More)