Julia V. Ershova

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BACKGROUND The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is increasing due to the expanded use of second-line drugs in people with multidrug-resistant (MDR) disease. We prospectively assessed resistance to second-line antituberculosis drugs in eight countries. METHODS From Jan 1, 2005, to Dec 31, 2008, we enrolled consecutive adults with(More)
BACKGROUND Acquired resistance to second-line drugs (SLDs) is a problem in treating patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis worldwide. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for acquired resistance (AR) to injectable SLDs (INJ SLDs) and fluoroquinolones in the US National tuberculosis Surveillance System, 1993-2008. METHODS We(More)
SETTING In resource-poor countries, few tuberculosis (TB) program staff at the national, provincial, and even district levels have the basic analytical and epidemiological skills necessary for collecting and analyzing quality data pertaining to national TB control program (NTP) improvements. This includes setting program priorities, operations planning, and(More)
BACKGROUND Sputum culture conversion is often used as an early microbiological endpoint in phase 2 clinical trials of tuberculosis treatment on the basis of its assumed predictive value for end-of-treatment outcome, particularly in patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis. We aimed to assess the validity of sputum culture conversion on solid media at(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of Cepheid® Xpert MTB/RIF® (“Xpert”) and TB-Biochip® MDR (“TB-Biochip”). Sputum specimens from adults with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) were homogenized and split for: (1) direct Xpert and microscopy, and (2) concentration for Xpert, microscopy, culture [Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) solid media and(More)
SETTING Standardised tuberculosis (TB) treatment through directly observed therapy (DOT) is available in South Africa, but the level of adherence to standardised TB treatment and its impact on treatment outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVES To describe adherence to standardised TB treatment and provision of DOT, and analyse its impact on treatment outcome. (More)
SETTING Programmatic implementation of decentralized rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) in Lima, Peru. OBJECTIVE Pre-post analysis compared time to diagnosis, treatment outcome and survival among patients tested with direct nitrate reductase assay (NRA) vs. indirect conventional methods. DESIGN From 2005 to 2009, we prospectively followed all(More)
Data from a large multicenter observational study of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) were analyzed to simulate the possible use of 2 new approaches to treatment of MDR TB: a short (9-month) regimen and a bedaquiline-containing regimen. Of 1,254 patients, 952 (75.9%) had no resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable(More)
Alternatives to culture are needed in high burden countries to assess whether response to treatment of multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is satisfactory. The objective was to assess the association of weight gain and treatment outcome. The methods included analysis of clinical, bacteriologic, and weight from 439 MDR-TB patients in the Philippines.(More)
INTRODUCTION In Kazakhstan, during 1995-2002, the annual notification rate per 100,000 population for new cases of tuberculosis (TB) increased from 67.1 to 165.1. Beginning in 1998, public health authorities have used the national case management strategy (DOTS) promulgated by the World Health Organization (WHO) to control TB. Intended goals of DOTS include(More)