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BACKGROUND Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor-beta provokes cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis; however, it is unclear whether the deleterious effects of transforming growth factor-beta signaling are conveyed through SMAD-dependent or SMAD-independent signaling pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS To determine the contribution of(More)
It is suggested that insulin resistance and metabolic maladaptation of the heart are causes of contractile dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis whether systemic PPARgamma activation, by changing the metabolic profile in a model of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (the ZDF rat) in vivo, improves contractile function of the heart in vitro. Male Zucker(More)
In animal models of lipotoxicity, accumulation of triglycerides within cardiomyocytes is associated with contractile dysfunction. However, whether intramyocardial lipid deposition is a feature of human heart failure remains to be established. We hypothesized that intramyocardial lipid accumulation is a common feature of non-ischemic heart failure and is(More)
Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) are characterized by oxidative stress as well as changes in the antioxidant enzymes of the heart. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes in repetitive I/R and hibernating myocardium. In a mouse model of ischemic cardiomyopathy induced by repetitive I/R, we postulated(More)
Hypobaric hypoxia induces right ventricular hypertrophy. The relative contribution of pulmonary hypertension, decreased arterial oxygen, and neuroendocrine stimulation to the transcriptional profile of hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy is unknown. Whereas both ventricles are exposed to hypoxia and neuroendocrine stimulation, only the right(More)
BACKGROUND The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha), a transcription factor that modulates fatty acid metabolism, regulates substrate preference in the heart. Although in acute ischemia there is a switch in substrate preference from fatty acids to glucose, metabolic gene expression in repetitive ischemia is not well described. In a(More)
Acute hypobaric hypoxia induces a transient reactivation of the fetal-metabolic gene program in the rat heart. Although chronic hypobaric hypoxia causes alterations in metabolism and cardiac function, little is known about the transcriptional profile associated with acclimatization to chronic hypoxia. Because in chronic hypoxia only the right ventricle is(More)
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