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BACKGROUND The root system of higher plants originates from the activity of a root meristem, which comprises a group of highly specialized and long-lasting stem cells. Their maintenance and number is controlled by the quiescent center (QC) cells and by feedback signaling from differentiated cells. Root meristems may have evolved from structurally distinct(More)
In this paper, I compare the feasibility and the pro…tability of group vs. individual performance pay when workers are envious and when veri…able signals on the workers'performances are not available. The group bonus contract is superior as long as the principal faces no credibility problem. This is due to the fact that group performance pay avoids the(More)
Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of the institute. Research disseminated by IZA may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between(More)
For helpful comments we thank Dorothea Kübler, Radosveta Ivanova-Stenzel, Axel Werwatz and the seminar participants at the Technical University of Berlin, the European Business School and the EEA conference 09. We are indebted to Kai Priesack, Wei Min Wang and Mark Henninger for research assistence and for help with conducting the experiments. We also thank(More)
The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of(More)
'I'll do it by myself as I knew it all along': On the failure of hindsight-biased principals to delegate optimally Discussion papers of the WZB serve to disseminate the research results of work in progress prior to publication to encourage the exchange of ideas and academic debate. Inclusion of a paper in the discussion paper series does not constitute(More)
We study the e¤ects of envy on the feasibility of relational contracts in a standard moral hazard setup with two agents. Performance is evaluated via an observable, but non-contractible signal which re ‡ects the agent's individual contribution to …rm value. Both agents exhibit disadvantageous inequity aversion. In contrast to the literature, we …nd that(More)
Contest designers are frequently concerned with a trade-o¤ between contest homogeneity and inclusion of contestants with high valuations. Based on the theoretical analysis by Clark and Riis (AER 1998), we experimentally investigate how two di¤erent distribution mechanisms for multiple prizes (simultaneously and sequentially) can solve this trade o¤. We …nd(More)
We study the e¤ects of envy on relational employment contracts in a standard moral hazard setup with two agents. Performance is evaluated via an observable, but non-contractible signal which re ‡ects an agent's individual contribution to …rm value. Both agents exhibit horizontal disadvantageous inequity aversion. In contrast to the literature , we …nd that(More)