Julia M. Snowball

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BACKGROUND Bowel cancer is a serious health burden and its early diagnosis improves survival. The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England screens with the Faecal Occult Blood test (FOBt), followed by colonoscopy for individuals with a positive test result. Socioeconomic inequalities have been demonstrated for FOBt uptake, but it is not known(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine patterns of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake over three biennial invitation rounds in the National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England. METHODS We analysed data from the BCSP's Southern Hub for individuals (n=62,099) aged 60-64 years at the time of first invitation to screening with a(More)
BACKGROUND Uptake in the national colorectal cancer screening programme in England varies by socioeconomic status. We assessed four interventions aimed at reducing this gradient, with the intention of improving the health benefits of screening. METHODS All people eligible for screening (men and women aged 60-74 years) across England were included in four(More)
OBJECTIVES Most types of population-based cancer screening require repeat participation to be effective. This study investigated predictors of repeat participation in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). METHODS The BCSP in England offers biennial colorectal cancer screening using a guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBt) from age 60-74 years.(More)
BACKGROUND To evaluate the risk of foetal loss associated with pandemic influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study. UK General Practice Research Database Pregnancies ending in delivery or spontaneous foetal death after 21 October 2009 and starting before 01 January 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Hazard ratios of foetal death for(More)
BACKGROUND There is a socioeconomic gradient in the uptake of screening in the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP), potentially leading to inequalities in outcomes. We tested whether endorsement of bowel cancer screening by an individual's general practice (GP endorsement; GPE) reduced this gradient. METHODS A cluster-randomised controlled(More)
BACKGROUND Colorectal neoplasia causes bleeding, enabling detection using Faecal Occult Blood tests (FOBt). The National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) guaiac-based FOBt (gFOBt) kits contain six sample windows (or 'spots') and each kit returns either a positive, unclear or negative result. Test kits with five or six positive(More)
BACKGROUND The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant(More)
Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59-74 years) routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt) in March 2013.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Animal studies have demonstrated macrogol laxatives may reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. This study aimed to investigate the association between macrogol prescribing and CRC risk. METHODS A case-control study nested within a cohort of laxative users was conducted using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. Six(More)
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