Julia M. Snowball

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BACKGROUND Pregnant women in Great Britain were recommended to receive influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines during the 2009/10 influenza pandemic, however uptake of the vaccines by pregnant women was reported to have been very low. AIM We sought to estimate uptake of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines and to investigate predictors of vaccine uptake in pregnant(More)
Medicine use during pregnancy is common; however the safety of medicine use during pregnancy is largely unknown when a medicine comes to market. Electronic healthcare databases, including the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), are increasingly being used for post-marketing surveillance in this field. The CPRD contains anonymised, longitudinal(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza vaccine uptake rates are low compared with uptake rates of many other vaccines. It is unclear how this differs between risk groups in the population and between pandemic and non-pandemic influenza vaccines. AIM This study sought to estimate uptake rates of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines among clinical risk groups in the UK(More)
AIM This study aims to investigate pregnancy losses in women with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes and compare this with the general population. METHODS Pregnancies ending between 1993 and 2006 in those with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes were identified on the General Practice Research Database. Pregnancy losses were identified from medical records and the cohort(More)
BACKGROUND To evaluate the risk of foetal loss associated with pandemic influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study. UK General Practice Research Database Pregnancies ending in delivery or spontaneous foetal death after 21 October 2009 and starting before 01 January 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Hazard ratios of foetal death for(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is commonly treated during pregnancy, yet data on the safety of asthma medicines used during pregnancy are sparse. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) fluticasone propionate (FP), alone and in fixed-dose combination with salmeterol (FSC) in terms of the risk of all major(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Animal studies have demonstrated macrogol laxatives may reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. This study aimed to investigate the association between macrogol prescribing and CRC risk. METHODS A case-control study nested within a cohort of laxative users was conducted using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. Six(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine if there are any differences between the types of pregnancy loss experienced by women who have been prescribed a statin just before or early in pregnancy compared with those who have not. METHODS A retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database was carried out. Women aged 10-49 years(More)
INTRODUCTION Electronic healthcare data have several advantages over prospective observational studies, but the sensitivity of data on neurodevelopmental outcomes and its comparability with data generated through other methodologies is unknown. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to determine whether data from the UK Clinical Practice Research(More)
BACKGROUND In postmarketing vaccine surveillance, adverse events observed in a vaccinated population are compared to the number expected based on a background incidence rate. The background rate should be accurate and obtained from a population comparable to the one vaccinated. Such rates are often not available. METHODS The incidence rate of generalised(More)