Julia M P Polak

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A massive neuronal system was detected by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to neuropeptide Y, the recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were most prevalent in cortical, limbic, and hypothalamic regions. Neuropeptide Y was extracted in concentrations higher than those of(More)
In order to assess the potential of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker of the nervous and neuroendocrine systems, we examined its immunolocation in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues, using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum and two new mouse monoclonal antisera, I3C4 and 3IA3. Our results demonstrate immunoreactive PGP 9.5 in neurons and nerve fibres at(More)
A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the new intestinal hormonal peptide tyrosine tyrosine [peptide YY (PYY)]. Peptide YY concentrations were measured in separated layers of the human gastrointestinal tract, where PYY was found exclusively in the mucosal epithelium which contained the endocrine cells. Peptide YY was found throughout the small(More)
The early progenitor cells to the pancreatic islets in the mouse have been characterized so as to re-examine their possible lineage relationships to the four islet cell types found in mature islets. Insulin and glucagon were both first expressed at embryonic day 9.5, and many cells coexpressed these two markers, as shown by light and electron microscopic(More)
Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to differentiate to all fetal and adult cell types and might represent a useful cell source for tissue engineering and repair. Here we show that differentiation of ES cells toward the osteoblast lineage can be enhanced by supplementing serum-containing media with ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate,(More)
Tatemoto and Mutt recently used the presence of a C-terminal NH2 group to identify and isolate a new peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), from porcine brain. This 36 amino acid peptide was subsequently shown to be active on isolated vas deferens, vascular smooth muscle and pancreatic acinar cells in very low molar concentrations. In view of these potent effects(More)
The distribution of the immunoreactivity to nitric oxide synthase has been examined from rostral to caudal areas of the rat central nervous system using light microscopy. Endogenous nitric oxide synthase was located using a specific polyclonal antiserum, produced against affinity purified nitric oxide synthase from whole rat brain, following the(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity was found throughout the entire spinal cord of man, marmoset, horse, pig, cat, guinea pig, mouse, rat, and frog. CGRP-immunoreactive fibers were most concentrated in the dorsal horn. In the ventral horn of some species large immunoreactive cells, tentatively characterized as motoneurons, were present.(More)